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Copyright, 1913, 

Set up and electrotyped. Published September, 1913. 

Norijjooli i^ress 

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In issuing this volume of a series of Handbooks on 
the Artistic Crafts, it will be well to state what are 
our general aims. 

In the first place, we wish to provide trustworthy 
text-books of workshop practice, from the points of 
view of experts who have critically examined the 
methods current in the shops, and putting aside 
vain survivals, are prepared to say what is good 
workmanship and to set up a standard of quality 
in the crafts which are more especially associated 
with design. Secondly, in doing this, we hope to 
treat design itself as an essential part of good work- 
manship. During the last century most of the arts, 
save painting and sculpture of an academic kind, 
were little considered, and there was a tendency to 
look on 'design' as a mere matter of appearance. 
Such 'ornamentation' as there was was usually ob- 
tained by following in a mechanical way a drawing 
provided by an artist who often knew little of the 
technical processes involved in production. With 
the critical attention given to the crafts by Ruskin 
and Morris, it came to be seen that it was impos- 
sible to detach design from craft in this way, and 
that, in the widest sense, true design is an insepar- 
able element of good quality, involving as it does 
the selection of good and suitable mate*" ' con- 
trivance for special purpose, expert work >hip, 

proper finish and so on, far more than mere orna- 
ment, and, indeed, that ornamentation itself was 
rather an exuberance of fine workmanship than a 
matter of merely abstract lines. Workmanship 
when separated by too wide a gulf from fresh 
thought — that is, from design — inevitably decays, 
and, on the other hand, ornamentation, divorced 
from workmanship, is necessarily unreal, and 
quickly falls into affectation. Proper ornamen- 
tation may be defined as a language addressed to 
the eye ; it is pleasant thought expressed in the 
speech of the tool. 

In the third place, we would have this series put 
artistic craftsmanship before people as furnishing 
reasonable occupations for those who would gain 
a livelihood. Although within the bounds of 
academic art the competition, of its kind, is so 
acute that only a very few per cent, can fairly hope 
to succeed as painters and sculptors, yet as artistic 
craftsmen there is some probability that nearly 
every one who would pass through a sufficient 
period of apprenticeship to workmanship and de- 
sign would reach a measure of success. 

In the blending of handwork and thought in such 
arts as we propose to deal with, happy careers may 
be found as far removed from the dreary routine 
of hack labour as from the terrible uncertainty of 
academic art. It is desirable in every way that 
men of good education should be brought back into 
the productive crafts : there are more than enough 
of us 'in the City,' and it is probable that more 
consideration will be given in this century than in 
the last to Design and Workmanship. 


Designers have at times to deal with some mat- Editor's 
ters which are almost common to all the arts, mat- Preface 
ters which they either know or do not know, and 
in which the genius they are apt to trust in goes for 
little apart from knowledge. They must learn 
lettering for inscriptions much like they once learnt 
the multiplication table, and they should learn the 
elements of heraldry in the same way. This it has 
been difficult to do, as mostofthebookson heraldry, 
in seeking to be complete, so effectually muddle 
up the few important points with the vast number 
of things unimportant, or worse, that the art stu- 
dent is likely to give it up in despair. Many books 
on heraldry, which in itself is surely a gay thing, 
have been made to resemble grammars and dic- 
tionaries of a meaningless jargon. 

Any student, however, who has become inter- 
ested in a single shield, or in the look of the thing as 
seen in a collection of fine examples of heraldry such 
as are illustrated in this volume, should be able to 
master the main principles in an hour or two. The 
curious terms are only old-fashioned ; they are used, 
so far as they are necessary, not of malice, but be- 
cause it is of the essence of heraldry that everything 
shall be so strictly defined that a few words may 
represent a shield of arms as surely as a picture. 
Hence everything has a name, everything is clear, 
sharp, and bright, the colours are few, the forms 
must be large and simple. Even the seemingly 
arbitrary dictum that *no colour must be put on 
colouror metal on metal ' may probably have arisen 
from the fact that when gilding or silvering was 
used on a shield it would form a perfect foil for 
colours, but as they reflected light in the same 


way, they could not be distinguished if used one on 
the other. Even yellow pigment on white would 
not tell clearly at any distance ; the maxim is merely 
a rule for the sake of distinctness. Again, the 
curious vigorous drawing of beasts and birds with 
the eyes staring and the feet spread out was not the 
result of a desire to be quaint, but arose naturally 
from the same need of being clear. A good 
naturalistic drawing of a lion would be useless on a 
flag. Granted the special needs of heraldry, it 
developed in a perfectly understandable way. 

On the question of heraldic drawing I should like 
to caution the student against thinking that it is so 
easy as it looks. Elementary and exaggerated, it 
may seem as if any child might do it, but in truth 
it is terribly difficult. The old shields were designed 
by experts with great experience ; they placed the 
charge perfectly on the field and so distributed the 
parts that they were balanced m 'weight'; there 
were no weak lines and nothing was crowded for 
lack of room. Much practice made them perfect, 
and perfection is still difficult. 

The present volume seems to me exactly what 
artists have wanted. 

March 191 3 



This book is an attempt to place before designers 
and craftsmen such an account of the principles 
of the art of Heraldry as will enable them to work 
out for themselves the many and various applica- 
tions of it that are possible to-day. 

To that end the different usages which have 
prevailed from time to time are dealt with in detail, 
and are illustrated as far as may be from ancient 

Should it be thought that undue stress has been 
laid upon the pre-Tudor heraldry, to the compara- 
tive exclusion of that of later times, it may be 
pointed out that until the principles of the earlier 
heraldry have been grasped and appreciated, it is 
impossible to get rid of the cast-iron uniformity 
and stupid rules that bound the heraldry of to- 
day and tend to strangle all attempts to raise it to 
a higher level. 

To what extent these chilling ideas prevail, and 
how necessary it is to get rid of them, cannot better 
be illustrated than by two letters written to the 
author, after most of the following chapters were in 
type, by a critical friend who has not read any of 

He points out in his first letter that on the very 
day of his writing there had been brought to his 


Author's notice, not for the first time, the great need that 
Preface exists for a book in which sculptors and painters 
may find out what they legitimately may and what 
they may not do as regards heraldry. What, for 
example, may be left out from an achievement of 
arms, and how the different elements composing it 
may be varied, or even rearranged. 

He instances the case of a sculptor who had been 
supplied with a drawing, ' brilliant in emerald green 
and powder blue,' of the arms that had been granted 
to a famous Englishman whose memory was about 
to be honoured by the setting up of a statue with 
his arms, etc. carved upon the pedestal. 

The arms in the drawing did not present any 
diflRculties, but the crest was not shown upon the 
helm, and the whole was surrounded by a series of 
trophies which to this unenlightened sculptor w^ere 
as heraldic as the arms and crest. Out of all this, 
asked the sculptor, what could lawfully be omitted? 
If any of the trophies were supporters, must they 
be shown ? And must the crest be used ? Ought 
the crest to be on a helm ? And should the helm 
be shown in profile or full-faced ^ 

The contents of the drawing, if all were sculp- 
tured, would, in my friend's opinion, 'either come 
so small as to be unmonumental, or so large as to 
dwarf the statue into a doll.' 

It will be seen from the principles enunciated in 
the present work that the answers to the foregoing 
questions were obviously as follows : 

I. That the sculptor might use the arms alone 
if he thought fit, and he might vary the shape 
and size of the shield according to his fancy. 

II. That he could omit the crest if he wished, 


but if he elected to use It, the crest ought certainly Author's 
to be set upon a helm, which should face the same Preface 
way as the crest ; the crested helm might also 
be flourished about with such mantling as the 
sculptor thought proper. 

III. That in the particular drawing none of the 
trophies was heraldic. The sculptor accordingly 
could omit the whole, if he were so minded, or 
could dispose about the arms and crested helm any 
such other trophies of like character as would in his 
judgment look well or be appropriate. 

In a further letter my friend enumerates other 
difficulties that vex poor artists. Must a shield 
always be surmounted by a crested helm ? Should 
the helm face any special way according to the de- 
gree of the bearer thereof .^ What are the ordinary 
relative proportions which helm and crest should 
bear to the shield ? May a shield be set aslant as 
well as upright ? Should a torse be drawn with a 
curved or a straight line ? Is it necessary to repre- 
sent the engraved dots and lines indicative of the 
tinctures ? What are supporters to stand upon ? 
Are they to plant their feet on a ribbon or scroll, o-r 
on a flowering mound, or what ? May arms 
entitled to have supporters be represented without 
them ? What are the simplest elements to which 
a shield of arms may be reduced ? — as, for ex- 
ample, in a panel some 60 or 70 feet above the 
eye, and when but a small space is available. 

To a craftsman or designer who has grasped the 
principles of heraldry these further questions will 
present no difficulty, and most of them can be 
answered by that appeal to medieval usage which 
the nature of the illustrations renders possible. 


These illustrations, it will be seen, are largely 
selected from heraldic seals, and for the particular 
reason that seals illustrate so admirably and in a 
small compass such a number of those usages to 
which appeal may confidently be made. Examples 
of heraldry in conjunction with buildings, monu- 
ments, and architectural features generally, have 
also been given, and its application to the minor 
arts has not been overlooked. 

In order, too, to enable full advantage to be 
taken of the long period covered by the illustra- 
tions, the most typical of these have been collected 
into a chronological series at the end of the book. 
It is thus possible to show the gradual rise and de- 
cline of heraldic art from the thirteenth to the 
seventeenth century, beyond which it is hardly 
necessary to go. 

The only modern illustrations that have been 
tolerated are those showing the formation of the 
Union Jack, and the degraded condition of the 
so-called Royal Standard. The coloured frontis- 
piece is an attempt to show a more effective way 
of displaying with equal heraldic 'correctness' the 
arms of our Sovereign Lord King George the 


My thanks are due to the Society of Antiquaries 
of London for leave to reproduce the coloured illus- 
trations in pis. I and ii, for the loan of blocks or 
drawings of figs. 7, 13, 33, 64, 65, loi, 129, 153, 186, 
187, 190, and 193, and for leave to photograph the 
numerous casts of seals figured in pis. v-xiv and 
xvii-xxx and throughout the book; to the Royal 
Archaeological Institute for loan of figs. 20 and 107; 


to the Sussex Archaeological Society for the loan of Author's 
\\<y. 142 ; to the Societyof Arts for figs. 6, 15, 17,28,30,41, Preface 
4;, 46, 48, 51, 55, 73, 74, 86, 92, 114, 126, 127, 150, 154, 
155, and 199; to the Royal Institute of British Archi- 
tects for figs. 8, 93, and 199 ; to Messrs. Cassell & Co. for 
figs. 21, 53, 54, 56, 63, 81, 84, 85, 91, 108, 109, 117, 118, 
124, 132, 133, 139, 151 ; to Messrs. Constable & Co. for 
figs. 9, 14, 43, 67, 68, 72, 75, 76, 77, 78, 83, 136, 137, 
138 ; to Messrs. Parker & Co. for fig. 143 ; and to Messrs. 
Longmans & Co. for figs. 177, 183. Also to Mr. T. W. 
Rutter for lending the drawings reproduced in pis. 11 
and III ; to Mr. R. W. Paul for the drawing of fig. 184 ; 
to Mr. Mill Stephenson for the loan of the brass rub- 
bings reproduced in figs. 19, 26, 27, 29, 31, 32, 35-39, 
42, 146-148; to the Rev. T. W. Galpin, Mr. E. M. 
Beloe, and Mr. Aymer Vallance for the photographs 
of figs. 47, 149, and 191 respectively; and to the Rev. 
Severne Majendie for leave to photograph the effigies 
of the Duke and Duchess of Exeter (figs. 167, 168) in 
St. Katharine's chapel in Regent's Park. 

I wish also to thank, among others, Mr. David Weller, 
head verger of Westminster Abbey, for leave to repro- 
duce the photographs shown in figs, i, 2, 4, 34, 40, 87, 
104, no, 134, 156, 176, 194, 195; Mr. T. W. Phillips, of 
Wells, for those forming figs. 23 and iii ; Mr. Charles 
Goulding, of Beverley, for those forming figs. 49, 50; 
Mr. T. Palmer Clarke, of Cambridge, for those forming 
figs. 88, 96, 128, 170, 171, and 172; and Mr. Fred 
Spalding, of Chelmsford, for the photograph of the New 
Hall panel in fig. 189. 



CHAP. -page 


Defects of Modern Heraldic Decoration ; Appeal to 
First Principles; English versus Foreign Sources; 
Definition of Heraldry ; Modes of Display ; Colours 
and Furs; Formation of Arms; Divisions of the 
Shield ; Early Authorities : Seals, Monuments, Build- 
ings, Wills and Inventories, Rolls of Arms. 


Early Forms of Shields ; Later Forms ; Shields of Ir- 
regular Outline and Surface ; Tne Filling of a Shield ; 
Apparent versus Absolute Uniformity; Modern 
Rules as to Proportion; The Use and Abuse of 
Quatering: its Origin and Growth; Differencing of 
Arms; The Scutcheon of Ulster; Diapering. 

Armorial Bearings of Ladies; Use of Lozenges and 
Roundels as variant forms of Shields ; Arms of Men on 
Lozenges; Combinations of Shields with Lozenges 
and Roundels of Arms on Seals and in Embroideries. 

Origin of Crests ; Earliest examples of Crests ; Ways 

of wearing Crests; The Helm and its treatment; 
Modern use of Helms ; Absurd Crests ; LTse of Crests 
other than by individuals ; The comparative sizes of 
Helms and Crests. 


Origin of Mantlings ; Simple early forms ; Colours of 
Mantlings ; Medieval usage as to colours of Mant- 


CHAP. page Contents 


Crests within Crowns ; Nature and Treatment of 
Crowns; Caps of Estate: Their possible origin and 
introduction into Heraldry ; The colour of Caps ; The 
placing of Crests upon Caps; Wreaths or Torse's; 
Their Colour; Crests and Mottoes ; Use of Crests by 
Bishops ; The ensigning of Arms with Mitres, 
Cardinals' and Doctors' Hats, and Caps of Estate. 


REBUS 165 

Definition of a Badge ; Difference between Crests and 
Badges; Examples of Badges; The Ostrich-Feather 
Badge ; The White Hart, etc. ; Introduction of Badges 
into Heraldry; Their Prevalence; Allusive Badges; 
Badges of obscure Origin; Knots and Badges; The 


The probable Origin of Supporters; Quasi-Sup- 
porters ; True Supporters: their Introduction; Sup- 
porters of Crested Helms ; Pairs of Supporters ; Dis- 
similar Supporters ; The use of Supporters by Ladies ; 
Other ways of Supporting Shields. 


The Royal Banner of Arms ; The Banner of the Arms 
of the City of London; Shapes of Banners; Sizes of 
certain Banners; LIpright versus Long Banners; 
Advantages of the upright form ; Banners with 
Achievements of Arms; Modern Use of Banners. 


Arms of husband and wife; Dimidiating; Impaling; 
Scutcheons of Pretence; Impalement with Official 
Arms ; Arms of ladies ; Heraldic Drawing ; Mottoes ; 
Use and Misuse of the Garter ; Lettering and Mottoes. 


Crowns and Coronets; Introduction of Coronets; 
Coronets of Princes, Dukes, and Earls; Bequests of 
Coronets; Illustrations of Coronets and Crowns; 
Collars and Chains; Collars of Orders; Lancastrian 


Contents ^^^^- . ^^^^ 

Collars of SS; Yorkist Collars of Suns and Roses; 

Tudor Collars of SS; Other Livery Collars; Waits' " 

Collars ; Collars and Chains of Alayors, Mayoresses, 

and Sheriffs; The Revival of Collars; Inordinate 

Length of modern Collars. 


The introduction of armorial insignia in embroidered 
Vestments : on Robes : on Beds, etc. 


Decorative Heraldry of the Reign of Henry VIII ; The 
Decadent Change in the Quality of Heraldry; Ex- 
amples of Elaborated Arms ; Survival of Tradition in 
Heraldic Art; Elizabethan Heraldry; Heraldry in 
the Seventeenth Century and Laider the Common- 
wealth; Post-Restoration Heraldry. 


INDEX 409 



■LATE _ page 

Banner of the arms of King George the Fifth 
{Frontispiece) Title 

I. Arms of Milton Abbey from a window in Ibberton 

church, Dorset, c. 1475. {From '' Archaeologia" 48 
vol. xlvii.) 

II. I Shields in stained glass of the 14th century in the 54 

III. {Victoria and Albert Museum. (From coloured 56 

drawings by Mr. T. W. Rutter) 

IV. Part (reduced) of an early Roll of Arms belonging 64 
to the Society of Antiquaries of London 

V. Examples of shaped shields JO 

VI. Various shapes of shields 73 

VII. Examples of quatering 89 

VIII. Examples of diapered shields 104 

IX. Use of lozenges and roundels of arms 112 

X. Use of lozenges and roundels of arms 114 

XI. Early examples of crests 123 

XII. Early uses of crests, on seals of William Montagu 125 

earl of Salisbury, 1337-44 

XIII. Various treatments of crests 129 

XIV. Examples of crests and mantlings 130 
XV. Stall-plate (reduced) of Hugh Stafford lord 151 

Bourchier, c. 1421 

XVI. Stall-plate (reduced) of William lord Willoughby, 154 

c. 1421 

XVII. Crests with mottoes 161 

XVIII. Examples of supporters 188 

XIX. Origin of supporters 193 

XX. Shields with supporters 198 

XXI. Shields accompanied by badges 199 

XXII. Quasi-supporter 200 

XXIII. Shields accompanied by badges 202 

XXIV. Shields accompanied by badges 203 


List of ^^^"^^ 

Illustrations ^^^"^^ a vu A . f vv i ^^^'q 

XXV. Arms with crown and supporters ot hlizabeth 20S 

Wydville, queen of Edward IV^ 

XXVI. Arms, supporters, and badges of the lady Mar- 209 

garet Beaufort, 1455 

XXVII. Methods of arranging shields 214 

XXVIII. Examples of banners of arms 216 

XXIX. Ways of upholding shields 218 

XXX. Crowned shield with supporters and badges of the 288 

lady Margaret Beaufort, 148c 

XXXI. Right and wrong versions of the Union Jack 248 



Tile with the arms of King Henry III c. 1255, Irom 
the chapter-house of Westminster abbey. {From 
a photograph by Mr. David IVeller) 

Shield of the arms of St. Edward, c. 1259, in the quire 
of Westminster abbey church. {Fro7?i a photograph 
by Mr. David IVeller) 

Heraldry on the gatehouse of Kirkham priory, York- 
shire, built between 1289 and 1296. {From a photo- 
graph by Mr. C. C. Hodges) 

Shield with curved bend or baston of Henry de Laci 
earl of Lincoln, c. 1259, in the quire of Westminster 
abbey church. {Fro7n a photograph by Mr. David 

Arms of Clopton, from a brass c. 1420 at Long Mel- 
ford in Suffolk 

Heraldic candle-holder, etc. from the latten grate 
about the tomb of King Henry \'H at Westminster. 
{From '"'Journal of the Society of Arts;'''' vol. xlv. 

Firedog with armorial bearings. {From a drazving by 
Mr. C. Praetorius, F.S.J.) 

Chimney-piece in Tattershall castle, Lincolnshire, 
built by Ralph lord Cromwell between 1433 and 
1455. {From ^''Jotirnal of the Royal Institute of 
British Architects''' 3rd S. vol. iv. 241) 

Paving tiles with arms and badges of the Beauchamps, 
from Tewkesbury abbey church. {From " The 
Ancestor'' vol. ix.) 











FIG. page List of 

10. Seal of Richard duke of Gloucester, as admiral of Illustrations 

England in Dorset and Somerset (1462) 59 

11. Heraldic buckle from the effigy of Robert lord Hun- 

gerford {ob. 1459) in Salisbury cathedral church. 
{From Stothard''s '''Monumental Effigies'''') 60 

12. Heraldic buckle from the effigy of William lord Bar- 

dolf {ob. 1441) in Dennington church, Suffolk. 
{From Stothard''s '^ Monumental Effigies'') 60 

13. Enamelled shield with the arms of Ballard on the 

print of a mazer at All Souls College, Oxford, c. 
1445. {From ^^ Archaeologia" vol. 1. 151) 61 

14. Heraldic paving tiles from Tewkesbury abbey. 

{From " The Ancestor,'''' vol. ix.) 63 

15. Shield with rounded corners (r. 1259) of Richard earl 

of Cornwall in the quire of Westminster abbey 
church. {From ''Journal of the Society of Arts^'' 
vol. xlv. 231) 66 

16. Shields of English work from the tomb of William 

earl of Pembroke, oh. 1296, in Westminster abbey 
church. {From Stothard' s'' Monumental Effigies^ ) 67 

17. Seal of Hugh Bardolf showing shield with square 

corners. From the Barons' Letter. {From ''Jour- 
nal of the Society of Arts,'''' vol. xlv. 228) 68 

18. Seal and counterseal of Simon lord of Montagu, with 

shield supported by two bearded men and sur- 
mounted by the castle of Corfe of which Simon be- 
came governor in 1298. From the Barons' Letter 69 

19. Shield of ornate form, from a brass at Stoke Poges, 

Bucks, 1476 70 

20. Head of a doorway, now in Norwich Guildhall, with 

arms of King Henry VHI, the City of Norwich, and 
the Goldsmiths' Company ._ {From the Norwich 
volume of the Archceological Institute, p. 173) 72 

21. Shield with engrailed edges, c. 1520, from the chantry 

chapel of abbot Thomas Ramryge in St. Albans 
abbey church. {From BouteWs "English Heraldry,''^ 
No. 210) 73 

22. Shields with ridged charges, from the monument of 

Guy lord Bryen, ob. 1390, in Tewkesbury abbey 
church. {From Stothard's " Monumental Effigies'''') 74 

23. Armorial panels from the George Inn at Glastonbury 

{From a photograph by Mr. T. JF. Phillips) 75 


List of ^'''- „, . , . . , , , , fl; r o ^""^^ 

Til trar'nns ^'^' '^'^^^'*^ with curved surtace trom an emgy oi a rem- 
bridge at Clehonger, Herefordshire. {From Stot- 
hard's ''''Monumental Efigies''^) 76 

25. Shield from the seal of Henry Percy (from the Barons' 

Letter) with well-drawn lion 77 

26. Shield with a leaping lion, from a brass c. 1380 at Fel- 

brigge in Norfolk 78 

27. Shield with an eagle from a brass at Great Tew, Oxon, 

c. 1410 79 

28. Seal of Queen's College, Oxford, 1341, with well- 

filled shields. {From ^''Journal of the Society of 
Arts" vol. xlv. 230) 80 

29. Shield with a griffin, from a brass of 1405, at Bough- 

ton-under-Blean, Kent 81 

30. Seal of Peter de Mauley IV (from the Barons'Letter) 

showing a simple, well-balanced shield. {From 

^^ Journal of the Society of Arts" vol. xlv. 234) 82 

31. Shield with a bend counter-flowered from the brass 

of Sir Thomas Bromfleet, 1430, at Wvmington, 
Beds. ' 82 

32. Shield with three lions, from a brass at Stanford 

Dingley, Berks, 1444 83 

33. Shield of the royal arms done in boiled leather, from 

the tomb of Edward prince of Wales at Canterbury, 
1376. {Reduced from Fetusta Alonumenta, vol. vn.) 84 

34. Shield of the King of France, c. 1259, in the quire of 

Westminster abbey church. {From a photograph 

by Mr. David Welier) 85 

35 and 36. Shields with uncharged ordinaries : from the 
brass of bishop Robert Wyvil at Salisbury, 1375 ; 
and the brass of William Holyngbroke at New 
Romney in Kent, 1375 87 

37. Shield with a charged bend from a brass at Kidder- 
minster, 1415 88 

38 and 39. Shields with engrailed borders, plain and 
charged: from the brass of William Grevel, I40i,at 
Chipping Campden in Gloucestershire; and the 
brass of Thomas Walysel, c. 1420, at Whitchurch, 
Oxon. 90 

40. Quartered shield of Queen Eleanor of Castile, from 
her tomb at Westminster, 1291. {Frotn a photo- 
graph by Mr. David Welier) 91 


FIG- ^. , „. . P^&' List of 

41. Arms of King Edward III from his tomb at Westmin- 

ster. {From ^''Journal of the Society of Arts,^'' vol. 
xlv. 230) 92 

42. Shield with impaled quarters from the brass of Peter 

Halle, ob. 1420, at Heme in Kent 93 

43. Arms of St. Edward, from the tomb of Edmund duke 

of York, ob. 1402, at King's Langley. {From " The 
Ancestor" vol. ii.) 94 

44. Seal of Humphrey Stafford earl of Buchingham, Here- 

ford, Stafford, Northampton, and Perche, as captain 
of Calais and lieutenant of the Marches, 1442 95 

45. Shield of Sir Hugh Hastings from the Elsing brass 

(1347), with diapered maunch and a label of three 
pieces. {From '^Journal of the Society of Arts ," vol. 
xlv. 231) 100 

46. Part of the gilt-latten effigy of Edward prince of Wales 

at Canterbury, showing labels over both the arms 
and the crest. {From '' Journal of the Society of 
Arts" vol. xlv. 232) 102 

47. Diapered shield of the arms of Vere, from an effigy in 

Hatfield Broadoak church, Essex. {From a photo- 
graph by the Rev. T. IV. Galpin) 104 

48. Diapered shield from the seal of Robert Waldby arch- 

bishop of York, 1390, for the Regality of Hexham. 
{From " Journal of the Society of Arts " vol. xlv. 23 i) 105 

49. Diapered shield of the arms of Clun, from the monu- 

ment of the lady Eleanor Percy {ob. 1337) in Bever- 
ley Minster. {From a photograph by Mr. C. Gould- 
ing) 106 

50. Diapered shield of the arms of Percy, from the monu- 

ment of the lady Eleanor Percy {ob. 1337) in Bever- 
ley Minster. {From a photograph by Mr. C. Gould- 
ing) ^ 107 

51. Lozenge of arms from the monument at Westminster 

of Frances Brandon duchess of Suffolk, ob. 1559. 
{From ^' Journal of the Society of ^Irts," vol. x\v. 229) no 

52. Seal of Robert FitzPain, with arms in an oval. From 

the Barons' Letter 112 

53. Seal of Joan de Barre, wife of John de Warenne earl 

of Surrey, 1306. {From BouteWs ^'English Her- 
aldry" No. 318) 113 

54. Seal of Mary de Seynt-Pol, wife of Aymer of Valence 



List of ^^^- P'^^^ 

Illustrations earl of Pembroke, 1322. {From BouteWs- English 

Heratdry, No. 319) 116 

55. Seal of Alaud Badlesmere, wife of John de Vere earl 

of Oxford, 1336. {From '^Journal of the Society of 
Arts'' vol. xlv. 228) 118 

56. Seal of Maud of Lancaster, wife of William of Burgh 

earl of Ulster, and of Sir Ralph Ufford, 1343-4. 
{From BouteWs ^^Etiglish Heraldry" No. 320) 119 

57. The Syon Cope, now in the Victoria and Albert 

Museum 121 

58. Seal of Thomas de Moulton, with fan-shaped crest 

on helm and horse's head. From the Barons' Letter 1 24 

59. Seal of Thomas earl of Lancaster, Leicester, and 

Ferrers, showing wiver crest on his helm and horse's 
head. From the Barons' Letter 126 

60. Seal of Henry of Lancaster, lord of Monmouth, with 

wiver crest and quasi-supporteis. From the 
Barons' Letter 127 

61. Seal of Robert de la Warde, with fan crest. From the 

Barons' Letter 128 

62. Seal of Walter de Mounci, with helm surmounted by 

a fox as a crest. From the Barons' Letter 128 

63. Seal of Sir Robert de Marni, 1366, with crested helms 

flanking the shield. {From BouteWs ''English Her- 
aldry,'''' No. 381) 130 

64. Crest, etc. of Sir John Astley, from a MS. c. 1420. 

{From '^ Jrchaeologia" vol. Ivii.) 131 

65. Crest of Edward prince of Wales, 1376, of leather and 

stamped gesso. {Reduced from " Vetusta Monu- 
menta''' vol. vii.) 132 

66. Funeral helm and wooden crest of George Brooke, 

lord Cobham, ob. 1558, in Cobham church, Kent 133 

67. Stall-plate of Humphrey duke of Buckingham as earl 

of StaflFord, c. 1429. {From " The Ancestor" vol. iii.) 135 

68. Stall-plate of Sir Thomas Burgh, K.G., c. 1483. 

{From '''The Ancestor" vol. iii.) 136 

69. Seal of Richard Nevill with separate crests and sup- 

porters for his earldoms of Salisbury and Warwick 137 

70. Seal of William lord Hastings, c. 1461 140 

71. Seal of William de la Pole earl of Suffolk, 1415 141 

72. Stall-plate of Ralph lord Bassett, showing simple form 

of mantling. {From " The Ancestor" vol. iii.) 142 


FIG. _ page Lis^ of 

73. Stall-plate of Sir Sanchet Dabrichecourt, K.G., r. Illustrations 

1421. {From ''^Journal of the Society of Arts" vol. 
xlv. 233) 143 

74. Stall-plate of Sir William Arundel, K.G., c. 142 1. 

{From '"'' Journal of the Society of Arts,''' vol. xlv. 

233) . ' . H5 

75. Stall-plate of Richard Beauchamp earl of Warwick, 

after 1423. {From ^^ The Ancestor,''^ vol. iii.) 146 

76. Stall-plate of Richard Wydville lord Rivers, c. 1450. 

{From " The Ancestor,''^ vol. iii.) 147 

yy. Stall-plate of Hugh lord Burnell, c. 1421. {From 

" The Ancestor,'''' vol. iii.) 149 

78. Arms of St. Edmund, from the tomb of Edmund 

duke of York, ob. 1402, at King's Langley. {From 
''The Ancestor" vol. ii.) 150 

79. Crest from the stall-plate of Hugh Stafford lord 

Bourchier 152 

80. Two forms of the same crest. From the stall-plate of 

Richard lord Grey of Codnor 153 

81. Helm with crest and wreath from the Hastings brass 

at Elsing, 1347. {From BouteWs ''English Her- 
aldry" No. 385) 157 

82. Helm with crest and torse and simple form of mant- 

ling, from the Harsick brass at Southacre, 1384 159 

83. Stall-plate of Sir Simon Felbrigge, c. 1421. {From 

"The Ancestor," vol. iii.) 160 

84. Privy seal of Henry le Despenser bishop of Norwich, 

1 370-1406. {From BouteWs "English Heraldry," 
No. 351) 162 

85. Shield with ostrich-feather badge from the tomb of 

Edward prince of Wales {ob. 1376) at Canterbury. 
{From BoutelFs "English Heraldry," No. 401) 167 

86. Seal of Thomas of Woodstock duke of Gloucester 

with ostrich-feather and Bohun swan badges. {From 
"Journal of the Society of Arts," vol. xlv. 240) 168 

87. Fetterlock-and-falcon badge of the house of York, 

from Henry VH's chapel at Westminster. {From 

a photograph by Mr. David JVeller) 169 

88. Crowned rose and portcullis from King's college 

chapel at Cambridge. {From a photograph by Mr. 

J. Palmer Clarke) 170 

89. Seal of Robert de Clifford, with arms surrounded by 


List of f"^G- ,. ,,,,,,. ,^ P'^s^ 


rings in allusion to his mother Isabel Vipont. (From 
the Barons' Letter) 171 

90. Seal of Robert de Toni as chevaler au cing with 

the arms encircled by swans and talbots. (From 
the Barons' Letter) 171 

91. Seal of Oliver Bohun with swans about the shield. 

{From BouteWs ''English Heraldry" No. 321) 172 

92. Gilt-latten efhgy at Westminster of King Richard II, 

pounced with badges, etc. {From ''Journal of the 
Society of Arts'' vol. xlv. 240) 173 

93. Piers and arches in Wingfield church, Suffolk, with 

badges of Michael de la Pole earl of Suffolk {ob. 
141 5) and his wife Katharine Stafford. {From a 
photograph by the Rev. IF. Marshall in "Journal of 
the Royal Institute of British Architects,'" 3rd. S. 
vol. iv. 245) 176 

94. Chimney-piece in the Bishop's Palace at Exeter with 

the arms and badges of bishop Peter Courtenay, 
1478-87. {From a photograph by Heath and 
Bradnee) i JJ 

95. Gateway to the Deanery at Peterborough. Built by 

Robert Kirkton abbot 1497-1526. {From a photo- 
graph by Mr. A. Nicholls) 178 

96. The gatehouse of Christ's College, Cambridge. {From 

a photograph by Mr. J. Pahner Clarke) 179 

97. Bronze door with badges of York and Beaufort from 

the Lady chapel of Westminster abbey church. 
{From a photograph by Mr. Emery Walker, F.S.A.) 180 

98. Signet with badge and crested helm of Lewis lord 

Bourchier, 1420 181 

99. Seal of Hugh de Veer with boar badge and two wivers 

as supporters. (From the Barons' Letter) 181 

100. Signet of William lord Bardolf, c. 1410, with eagle 

badge derived from his arms 182 

loi. Signet with flote badge and word of Sir William Old- 

halle in 1457. {From" Archaeologia" vol. xxxvii. 

337) . 182 

102. Seal with badge (a gray or badger) of Richard lord 

Grey of Codnor, 1392 183 

103. Seal of Thomas lord Stanley as earl of Derby and 

seneschal of Macclesfield, 1485, with the eagle's 
claw badge of Stanley and the legs of the Isle of 
Man ' 183 


FIG. page Lig^ Qf 

104. Daisy plant {marguerite) badge of the Lady Mar- Illustrations 

garet Beaufort, from Henry VII's chapel at West- 
minster. {From a photograph by Mr. David Weller) 184 

105. Part of the brass at Exeter of canon William Lange- 

ton, kinsman of Edward Stafford bishop of Exeter, 
1413, in cope with an orphry of i€'s and Stafford 
knots 185 

106. Elbow-piece and Bourchier knot from the brass of 

Sir Humphrey Bourchier, ob. 147 1, in Westminster 
abbey church 186 

107. x-\labaster tomb and effigy of Edward Stafford earl of 

Wiltshire, ob. 1498, in Lowick church, Northamp- 
tonshire. {From the ^^ Archceological Journal,''^ vol. 
Ixi. 233) _ 187 

108. Rebus of abbot Robert Kirkton from the Deanery 

Gate at Peterborough. {From BouteWs ^^ English 
Heraldry:' No. 295) 188 

109. Rebus of Thomas Beckington bishop of Bath and 

Wells, 1477. {From BouteWs ''English Heraldry,'''' 
No. 296) _ _ 188 

no. Rebus of John Islip abbot of Westminster, from his 
chantrv chapel. {From a photograph by Mr. 
David 'jVeller) _ 189 

111. Oriel window in the Deanery at Wells with badges of 

King Edward IV, and badges and rebuses of Dean 
Gunthorpe. {From a photograph by Mr. T. IF. 
Phillips) 190 

112. Arms and rebus of Sir John Pechy, ob. 1522, from 

painted glass in LuUingstone church, Kent. 
{From Stothard's ''Monumental Effigies'^) 191 

113. Seal of John de Moun slung from an eagle and flanked 

by two leopards. From the Barons' Letter 195 

114. Seal of Alan la Souche in 1301. From the Barons' 

Letter. {From " Journal of the Society of Arts :^ vol. 
xlv. 228) 196 

115. Seal of John Beauchamp of Hacche, with shield on 

breast of an eagle. (From the Barons' Letter) 197 

1 16. Seal of William de Ferrers with shield upon an eagle 

with two heads. (From the Barons' Letter) 197 

117. Seal of Edmund Mortimer earl of March and Ulster, 

1400, with rampant leopard supporters. {From 
BouteWs "English Heraldry ^^ No. 407) 201 


List of ^'^^- ^^^^ 

Tii • ii8. Seal of Sir William Windsor, 1 38 1, with eagle suppor- 

luustrations ^^^^^ ^^^^^^ Boutell's ''English Heraldry, " No. 382) 201 

119. Seal of William de la Pole duke of Suffolk, 1448 202 

120. Seal of John Nevill lord Montagu, 1461 203 

121. Seal of William lord Hastings, c. 1461 204 

122. Seal of John lord Talbot and Furnival, 1406 205 

123. Seal of George duke of Clarence and lord of Rich- 

mond, 1462, with black bulls of Clare supporting 
his crested helm 207 

124. Seal of Richard Beauchamp earl of Warwick, 1401. 

(From BoutelVs ''English Heraldry,''' No. 448) 208 

125. Seal of Richard Beauchamp earl of Warwick and 

of Albemarle and lord Despenser, 1421 209 

126. Seal of Edmund duke of Somerset for the town of 

Bayeux, c. 1445. (From " Journal of the Society of 
Arts," vol. xlv. 234) 210 

127. Seal of Cecily Nevill, wife of Richard duke of York 

and mother of King Edward IV, 1461. {Fro7n 
"Journal of the Society of Arts'' vol. xlv. 235) 212 

128. Arms and supporters, a dragon and a greyhound, of 

King Henry VH in King's College chapel at Cam- 
bridge. {From a photograph by Mr. J. Palmer 
Clarke) 213 

129. Seal of the Mayoralty of Calais. {From "Jrchaeo- 

logia," vol. liii. 327) 215 

130. Seal of Walter lord Hungerford with banners of 

Heytesbury and Hussey or Homet, c. 1420 216 

131. Knights with banners, from an illumination 220 

132. Seal of Walter lord Hungerford with banners. {From 

Boutell's "English Heraldry," No. 391) 221 

133. Part of the seal of Margaret lady Hungerford, with 

impaled banner held up by a lion. {From Boutell's 
"English Heraldry," No. 406) 222 

134. Tomb of Lewis Robsart lord Bourchier, K.G. ob. 

143 1, in Westminster abbey church, with banners 
of arms upheld bv supporters. {From a photograph 
by Mr. David W'eller) 223 

135. The King's banner or "royal standard" as now borne 227 

136. Stall-plate, as a banner, of Walter lord Hungerford, 

after 1426. {From " The Ancestor," vol. iii.) 230 

137. Stall-plate, as a banner, of Richard Nevill earl of 

Salisbury, c. 1436. {From " The Ancestor," vol. iii.) 23 1 


^'^o on, , .o. r , ^> rx. ,. ^^^"^ List of 

138. Stall-plate, as a banner, of Sir John Grey of Ruthin, 

c. 1439. {From " The Ancestor,'''' vol. iii.) 232 

139. Standard of Sir Henry Stafford, K.G. c. 1475. {From 

BouteWs ^^ English Heraldry" No. 415) 234 

140. Knights with pcrnnons, from an illumination 236 

141. Armed Knights carrying pennons, from an illumina- 

tion 237 

142. Armorial vane on Etchingham church, Sussex. {From 

''Sussex Jrchceological Collections" vol. ix. 349) 240 

143. Vane formerly upon the finial of the kitchen roof, 

Stanton Harcourt, Oxon. {From ''A Glossary of 

. . . Gothic Architecture " vol. i. 505) 241 

144. Part of King Henry VIII's garden at Hampton Court, 

from a contemporary picture. 246 

145. Part of King Henry Mil's garden at Hampton Court, 

from a contemporary picture. 247 

146. Shield of Bryen impaling Bures, from a brass in 

x\cton church, Suffolk 252 

147. Lion with a forked tail, from a brass at Spilsby in 

Lincolnshire, 1391 255 

148. Shield with three pheasants, from a brass at Checken- 

don, Oxon, 1404 256 

149. Shield of the arms of Sir Humphrey Littlebury, from 

his effigy at Holbeach in Lincolnshire, c. 1360, with 
fine examples of heraldic leopards. {From a pho- 
tograph by Mr. E. M. Beloe, F.S.A.) 257 

150. Early and modern versions of ermine-tails. {From 

''Journal of the Society of Arts," vol. xlv. 236) 258 

151. Early and modern versions of vair. {Fro?n Bou- 

teWs "English Heraldry,'" Nos. 62, 61) 258 

152. The Garter, from the brass of Thomas lord Camoys, 

K.G. at Trotton in Sussex 261 

153. Pewter medallion with Edward prince of Wales, now 

in the British Museum. {From " Archaeologia," 
vol. xxxi. 141) 262 

154. Shield of arms encircled by the Garter, from the 

brass of Thomas lord Camoys, ob. 1419. {From 
"Journal of the Society of Arts," vol. xlv. 237) 264 

155. Shields encircled by the Garter and a scroll, from the' 

brass of bishop Hallam {ob. 1416) at Constance. 
{From " Journal of the Society of Arts," vol. x\v.2T,y) 265 

156. Royal arms of King Henry VH within the Garter, of 



Illustrations l^nglisn work, irom the King s tomb by lorregiano 

at Westminster. (From a photograph by Mr. David 
JVeller) 266 

157. Arms of St. George within the Garter, from the brass 

of Sir Thomas BuUen, K.G. earl of Wiltshire and 
Ormond, 1538, at Hever in Kent 267 

158. Crowned effigy of Queen Eleanor at Westminster 270 

159. Crowned effigy of Queen Joan at Canterbury 271 

160. Helm and crest, and bust, of Richard Beauchamp 

earl of Warwick, ob . 1439, from his gilt-latten 
effigy at Warwick. {From Stothard's " Monumental 
Efigies ") ^ 274 

161. Effigy of a lady, c. 1250, in Scarcliffe church, Derby- 

shire. {From Stothard's ''''Monumental Effigies' ) 275 

162. Effigy of a lady in Staindrop church, Durham. 

{From StotharcTs '''Monumental Effigies^') 276 

163. Thomas earl of Arundel, ob. 1416, from his alabaster 

effigy at Arundel. {From Stothard's "Monumental 
Effigies'') 277 

164. Joan Beaufort, countess of Westmorland, ob. 1440, 

from her alabaster effigy in Staindrop church, Dur- 
ham. {From Stothard's " Monmnental Effigies") 278 

165. William FitzAlan, earl of Arundel {ob. 1487) from his 

effigy at Arundel. {From Stothard's "Monumental 
Effigies") 279 

166. Joan countess of Arundel, from her effigy at Arundel. 

{From Stothard's "Monumental Effigies") 280 

167. John Holand duke of Exeter, ob. 1447, from his effigy 

at St. Katharine's hospital, Regent's Park 282 

168. Head of a duchess of Exeter, from the monument at 

St. Katharine's hospital. Regent's Park 283 

169. Alice duchess of Suifolk, ob. 1475, from her alabaster 

effigy in Ewelme church, Oxon. {From Ilollis's 
"Monumental Effigies") 284 

170. Armorial ensigns and badges of the lady Margaret 

Beaufort from the gatehouse of her foundation of 
Christ's college, Cambridge. {From a photograph 
by Mr. J. Palmer Clarke) 286 

171. Arms of the foundress, the lady Margaret Beaufort, 

with yale supporters, from the base of an oriel in 
Christ's college, Cambridge. {From a photograph 
by Mr. J. Palmer Clarke) 287 


"^- . • , , , , .o T , , n ^^^^ List of 

172. Armorial panel on the gatehouse of St. John's colleg 

Cambridge. {From a photograph by Mr. J. Palmer 
Clarke) 289 

173. King Henry IV from his alabaster effigy in Canter- 

bury cathedral church. {From Stothard's ^^ Monu- 
viental Effigies'''') 291 

174. King Henry HI from his gilt-latten effigy at West- 

minster 292 

175. King Edward II from his alabaster effigy at Glouces- 

ter. {From Stothard''s ''''Monumental Effigies'''') 293 

176. Crowned initials of King Henry VII from his Lady 

chapel at Westminster. {From a photograph by 
Mr. David IVeller) 294 

177. Thomas Howard third duke of Norfolk (1473 ?-i554) 

with the collar of the Order of the Garter, from the 
picture by Holbein at Windsor Castle. {From 
Gardiner'' s '''' Student'' s History of England,'''' p. 410) 295 

178. Collars of SS 296 

179. Collar of SS. from the effigy of William lord Bardolf, 

ob. 1441, at Dennington in Suffolk. {From Stoth- 
ard's '''' Momimental Effigies'^) 297 

180. Spandrel of the tomb of Oliver Groos esquire {ob. 

1439) in Sloley church, Norfolk, with collar of SS 301 

181. Collars of SS from the effigy of Queen Joan at Canter- 

bury, and of Robert lord Hungerford at Salisbury. 
{From Stothard's ''Monumental Effigies'") 303 

182. Collars of suns and roses from the effigy of a knight at 

Aston, Warwickshire, and the effigy of Sir Robert 
Harcourt, K.G. 1471 at Stanton Harcourt, Oxon. 
{From Mollis'' s ''Monumental Effigies'''') 305 

183. Sir Thomas More wearing the collar of SS : from an 

original portrait painted by Holbein in 1527, belong- 
ing to the late Mr. Edward Huth. {From Gardiner'' s 
" Studeni\f History of England,'' p. 387) 307 

184. Head of the effigy in Ripon Minster of Sir Thomas 

Markenfield with livery collar of park-palings. 
{From a drawing by Mr. Roland Paul, F.S.J.) 310 

185. Thomas lord Berkeley {ob. 1417) with a collar of mer- 

maids, from his brass at Wootton-under-Edge, 
Gloucestershire. {From Hollis''s "Monumental 
^ Effigies'') _ 311 

186. Silver badge belonging to the duke of Northumber- 

land. {From a drawing by Mr. C. Praetorius, F.S.J.) 3 12 




List of ^^^- . ,. , ^ P^S^ 

Tlliistrations ^^'^' ^'^i^^' Collars of Exeter, King's Lynn, and Norwich 3.4 

188. Part of an embroidered altar frontal with a rebus at 

Baunton in Gloucestershire. {From a photograph 

by Mr. G. Clinch) 320 

189. Carved panel with the crowned arms, supporters, 

and badges of King Henry VIII at New Hall in 
Essex. (From a photograph by Mr. Fred Spalding) 333 

190. Paving tile with arms and initials of John Lyte (r. 

1535), from Marten church, Wilts. (From a draw- 
ing by Mr. C. Praetorius, F.S.A.) 334 

191. Arms with crested helm and badge (a blazing ragged- 

staff) of, apparently, Sir John Guldeford of Benen- 
den, ob. 1565, in East Guldeford church, Sussex. 
(From a photograph by Mr. Aymer Vallance, M.J., 
F.S.J.) ... 339 

192. Part of a bed-hanging embroidered with the arms of 

Henry and Elizabeth Wentworth, c. 1560, formerly 

in the possession of Sir A. W. Franks, K.C.B. 3*42 

193. Arms of Cotes, from a mazer print of 1585-6. (From 

^^ Archaeologia," vol. 1. 174) 343 

194. Shield from the tomb of Margaret countess of Len- 

nox, oZ^. 1578, in Westminster abbey church. (From 

a photograph by Mr. David JVeller) 344 

195. Achievement of arms from the monument of Sir 

Richard Pecksall, ob. 1571, in Westminster abbey 
church. (From a photograph by Mr. David JVeller) 345 

196. Obverse of the Great Seal of the Republic of England, 

Scotland, and Ireland, 1655 (reduced) 348 

197. Arms, etc. of the Trinity House, London. From a 

woodcarving, c. 1670, in the Victoria and Albert 

198. Limewood carving with the arms and crest of the Tre- 

vor family, c. 1700, in the Victoria and Albert 

199. Part of the carved oak ceiling of the chapel, formerly 

the hall, of Auckland castle, Durham, with the 
arms of bishop John Cosin. Date 1662-4. (From 
a photograph by Mr. H. Kilburn in '^ Journal of the 
Royal Institute of British Architects," 3rd S. vol. iv. 
272) ... 352 

Chronological Series of Illustrations 354 






Defects of Modern Heraldic Decoration ; Appeal 
to First Principles; English versus Foreign 
Sources; Definition of Heraldry; Modes of 
Display ; Colours and Furs ; Formation of Arms ; 
Divisions of the Shield; Early Authorities: 
Seals, Monuments, Buildings, Wills and Inven- 
tories, Rolls of Arms. 

To those who have given attention to the 
study of ancient heraldry few things are 
more surprising than the imperfect under- 
standing of its true principles displayed in 
their works by so many artists and crafts- 
men of every degree. Year after year, in 
paintings and sculpture at the Royal 
Academy and other exhibitions, in the 
architecture and decorations of our 
churches and public buildings, on monu- 
ments, on plate, jewellery, and ornaments 
of all kinds, the attempt to introduce 
armorial accessories, even by some of our 
best artists, is almost always a failure. 

In so recent a work as the national 
memorial to Queen Victoria before Buck- 

c 33 

Introduction ingham Palace, the shields for Scotland 
in the frieze of the pedestal bear the ram- 
pant lion only, and the distinctive double 
tressure is again omitted in the Scottish 
quarter of the royal arms behind the figure 
of Victory. The sides of the pedestal also 
bear fanciful shields of arms, in the one case 
with three lamps, in the other with some al- 
legorical device, charged on bends sinister ! 
It is only fair to say that the fault 
appears to be not altogether that of the 
artist or craftsman, but should rather be 
ascribed to the disregard of the principles 
and usages of true armory that pervades 
so much of the printed literature to which 
men naturally turn for information. 

He, however, who would know some- 
thing about heraldic art must go behind 
the books to better sources of information, 
and rid himself once and for all of the 
modern cast-iron rules that cramp all 
attempts to improve matters. He will 
then soon find himself revelling in the 
delightful freedom and playful common- 
sense of medieval armory when it was still 
a living art, and a science too, utilized for 
artistic purposes by every class of worker 
and unencumbered by the ridiculous con- 
ceits of Tudor and later times. 


The appeal, moreover, should largely be Introduction 
confined, if one would have what is best, 
to our own land. In the beginning 
heraldry was much the same in most 
European countries, but in course of time 
foreign armory became compHcated by 
needless subdivisions and new methods of 
expression and combination. It would 
indeed be foolish to maintain that nothing 
can be learnt from foreign sources, but in 
the earlier stages of study English heraldry 
should come first. Not only is it charac- 
terized by a beautiful simplicity which 
continued practically unchanged until the 
beginning of the sixteenth century, but no 
other country outside England possesses 
such a woalth of examples of its various 
applications, and they lie immediately to 
hand foi'purposes of study and comparison. 
Moreover, English heraldry so fully illus- 
trates the general principles followed in 
other countries that it is unnecessary at 
first to go further afield. 76 O?^- 

Heraldry, or armory as it was anciently 
called, is a symbolical and pictorial lan- 
guage of uncertain and disputed origin, 
which, by the beginning of the thirteenth 
centur}', had already been reduced to a 
science with a system, classification, and 


Introduction nomenclature of its own. The artistic de- 
vices known as arms, which may be formed 
by proper combinations of the colours, or- 
dinaries, and figures that represent the let- 

FiG. I. Tile with the arms of King Henry III, c. 1255, 
from the chapter-house of Westminster abbey. 

ters of this language, had each their signifi- 
cance, and soon came to be regarded as 
the hereditar}^ possession of some person, 
family, dignity, or office. 

The display of arms was restricted 


primarily to shields and banners but occa- Introduction 
sionally to horse-trappers (pis. xi b and 
XII b) and such garments as jupes, gowns, 
and mantles. Later on heraldry came also 

Fig. 2. Shield of the arms of St. Edward, c. 1259, in 
the quire of Westminster abbey church. An early 
instance of the use of heraldry in architecture. 

to be used ornamentally, either upon shields 
or without them, in all kinds of ways, in 
architecture and on monuments, on tiles 
and in glazing, in woodcarvings and in 
paintings, in woven stuffs and embroideries, 
in jewellery and on seals. 

The colours used in heraldry are red, 
blue, green, purple, and black, or to 


Introduction give them their old names, gules, azure, 
vert, purpure, and sable; combined with 
the yellow of gold and the whiteness 
of silver. Orange was never used, proba- 

FiG. 3 . Heraldry on the gatehouse of Kirkham priory, 
Yorkshire, built between 1289 and 1296. 

bly on account of the difficulty of finding 
a stable pigment. It was soon found that 
for brilliancy of effect the use of gold or 
silver with a colour was preferable to that 


of colour with colour or metal with metal ; Introduction 
two colours are therefore found together 
or superposed only under certain con- 
ditions, and the same applies to the two 

Imitations of two furs, ermine and vair, 
were also used : the one of white flecked 
with little black tails ; the other of alter- 
nating oblong patches of white and blue, 
square at the top and rounded at the 
bottom, to represent grey squirrels' skins. 
(See figs. 151, 152.) If vair were 
coloured other than white and blue, the 
resultant was called vairy. There is also 
known a black fur with silver ermine-tails. 

There were never any exact rules as to 
the particular tint of the colour employed, 
that being simply a matter of taste. Thus 
blue may range from a full indigo almost 
to Cambrdge-blue, and red from a bright 
scarlet, through vermilion, to a dull 
brick colour, and so on ; and it is sur- 
prising to find how well quiet colours blend 

In the formation of arms the mere com- 
binations of colours and metals produced 
by vertical, horizontal, or other divisions 
of the shield were soon exhausted, as were 
quarters, checkers, etc. There accordingly 


Introduction grew quite naturally the further use of 
applied strips or bands based upon such 

Thus the vertical parting of a metal and 


a colour known as party produced the pale, 
and a horizontal division the fesse or bar, 
and these combined to form the cross sug- 
gested by the quarterly lines. An oblique or 
slanting parting gave rise to the bend, and 
the crossing of two such produced the St. 
Andrew's cross or saltire. A combination 

of the lines of a saltire with a quarterly Introduction 
division produced the varied field called 
gyronny. The border almost suggested 
itself. A cutting off of the upper half or 









head of the shield yielded the chief, and of 
a fourth part the quarter. One other of 
these applied pieces, or ordinaries as they 
were called, was the cheveron, formed of 
two strips issuing from the lower edges of 
the shield and meeting in a point in the 
middle, like the cheverons forming the roof 


Introduction timbers of a house. Another ordinary 
was the pile, which was often threefold 
with lines converging towards the base as 
in fig. 72. Sometimes a shield was charged 


with one of smaller size called a scutcheon, 
and the middle of this was occasionally cut 
out to form a voided scutcheon or orle. 
Flanches, as they are called, are very rarely 
found ; they are formed by drawing in- 
curving lines within each side of the shield. 
An even series of pales yielded a vertical 


striping called paly, and of piles, pily, while Introduction 
an even number of bars became barry. 
Undulated or waved bars formed wavy, and 
sometimes paly and pily stripes were also 




waved (fig. 19). In early examples the 
bend was often bended or curved. Bends 
are so represented m one of the shields in 
Westminster abbey (fig. 4), in some of the 
shields over the nave arcades m York 
minster, and on a number of monumental 
effigies. A narrower bend which overlaid 


Introduction everything was known as a baston (see fig. 
60). A number of narrow bends produced 
bendy, but the Hnes were then straight. 
A field divided into squares or checkers 

Fig. 4. Shield with curved bend or baston 

of Henry de Laci earl of Lincoln, c. 1259, 

in the quire of Westminster abbe}^ church. 

formed cheeky, and when divided into what 
are now called lozenges it became lozeng3^ 
Pales, fesses, crosses, saltires, borders, and 
cheverons sometimes had their edges en- 
grailed by taking out of them, as it were, 
a continuous series of bites separated 
by sharp points, and the lower edge of a 


chief or the inner margin of a border was Introduction 
often indented Hke the edge of a saw; but 
in early heraldry engrailing and indenting 
were interchangeable terms. An indented 
fesse was anciently called a daunce. Cheve- 
rons, fesses, bars, etc. were occasionally 
battled, through the upper line being 
formed into battlements. A fesse was 
often placed between two cheverons, as in 
the well-known arms of FitzWalter ; or 
between two very narrow bars called 
cotises, or pairs of cotises called gemell 
bars. Cheverons, bends, and pales were 
also sometimes cotised. Cotises were 
often of a tincture different from that 
of the ordinary which they accompanied, 
and sometimes indented or dancetty as in 
the arms of Clopton (fig. 5) and Gonvile. 
The ground or field could be relieved by 
the use of vair or ermine, or by the addition 
, of fretting or trellis work or other simple 
means. It was also not unfrequently 
powdered with small crosses, fleurs-de-lis, 
or billets ; often in conjunction with a larger 
charge like a cinqfoil or a lion. 

Almost from the beginning every kind 
of device was charged or painted upon 
shields, either singly or in multiple, and 
upon or about such ordinaries as crosses, 


Introduction cheverons, and fesses. Birds, beasts, and 
fishes, and parts of them, hke heads, or 
feet, or wings ; flowers, fruits, and leaves ; 
suns, moons or crescents, and stars ; fleurs- 
de-Hs, crosses, billets, roundels, rmgs, etc. 
all were pressed into the service. The 

Fig. 5. Arms of Clopton, sahle a bend silver 
and two cotises dancetty gold, from a brass 
c. 1420 at Long Melford in Suffolk. 

great rule as to colour held good as regards 
charges, and it was not permissible to paint 
a red rose upon blue or a gold star upon 
silver; but a red rose upon gold or a silver 
star upon blue was quite right. 

It has however been lawful at all times 
to place an ordinary, such as a fesse or a 


cheveron, and whether charged or not, Introduction 
upon a parti-coloured field like quarterly, 
cheeky, paly, or barry, or upon vair or 
vairy. A quarter, or a chief, or a border, 
without reference to its colour, can also be 
added to any such field. 

Conversely, a parti-coloured cross, fesse, 
or charge of any kind, is allowable upon a 
plain field. 

In the Great Roll of arms, temp. Edward 
II, are instances of two shields, in the one 
case of a red lion, and in the other of 
a red fer-de-moline, on fields party gold 
and vert ; also of a silver leopard upon 
a field party gold and gules, and of three 
red lions upon party gold and azure. Like- 
wise of a shield with three lions ermine 
upon party azure and gules, and of another 
with wavy red bars upon a field party 
gold and silver. 

In the arms, too, of Eton College 
granted by King Henry VI in 1448-9 
three silver lilies on a black field are com- 
bined with a chief party azure and gules, 
with a gold leopard on the red half and a 
gold fleur-de-lis on the blue half. King 
Henry also granted in 1449 these arms, 
party cheveronwise gules and sable three gold 
keys, to Roger Keys, clerk, for his services 


Introduction in connexion with the building of Eton 
College, and to his brother Thomas Keys 
and his descendants. 

Shields with quarterly fields often had a 
single charge in the quarter, like the well- 
known molet of the Veres, or the eagle of 

Arms were sometimes counter-coloured, 
by interchanging the tinctures of the whole 
or parts of an ordinary or charge or charges 
overlying a parti-coloured field. This often 
has a very striking efl^ect, as in the arms of 
St. Bartholomew's Hospital, which are party 
silver and sable a cheveron counter-coloured, or 
those of Geoffrey Chaucer, who bore party 
silver and gules a bend counter-coloured. Sir 
Robert Farnham bore quarterly silver and 
azure four cresceiits counter-coloured^ or as 
the Great Roll describes them, 'de I'un en 
I'autre.' The town of Southampton like- 
wise bears for its arms gules a chief silver 
with three roses counter-coloured. 

In drawing parti-coloured fields it is as 
well to consider what are the old rules with 
regard to them. In the early rolls a field 
barry of silver and azure, or of gold and 
sable, is often described as of six pieces, 
that is with three coloured bars alternating 
with three of the metal, though barry 




of eight and even ten pieces is found. Introduction 
Paly of six pieces is also a normal 
number. But the number of pieces 
must always be even, or the alternate 
pieces will become bars or pales. The 
number of squares in each line of a 
checkered field or ordinary is also another 
important matter. Six or eight form the 
usual basis for the division of a field, but 
the seven on the seal of the Earl of 
Warenne and Surrey attached to the 
Barons' Letter of 1 300-1 is not without its 
artistic advantages. On an ordinary, such 
as a fesse or cross, there should be at least 
two rows of checkers. Here, however, as 
in other cases, much depends upon the size 
of the shield, and a large one could ob- 
viously carry with advantage either on 
field or ordinary more squares than a small 
one without infringing any heraldic law. 

Besides the plain cross familiar to most 
of us in the arms of St. George, and the 
similar form with engrailed edges, there is 
a variety known as the ragged cross, 
derived from two crossed pieces of a tree 
with lopped branches. This is often used 
in the so-called arms of Our Lord, showing 
the instruments of His Passion, or in com- 
positions associated therewith, as in the 

D 49 

Introduction cross with the three crowned nails forming 
the arms of the town of Colchester. 

Several other forms of cross have also 
been used. The most popular of these 
is that with splayed or spreading ends, 
often split into three divisions, called the 
cross paty, which appears in the arms of 
St. Edward (see figs. 2 and 43). It is 
practically the same as the cross called 
patonce, flory, or fleury, these being names 
applied to mere variations of drawing. The 
cross with les chefs fiurettes of the Great 
Roll seems to have been one flowered, or 
with fleurs-de-lis, at the ends. 

Another favourite cross was that with 
forked or split ends, formed of a fer-de- 
nioline or mill-rind, sometimes called a 
cross fourchee, or, when the split ends were 
coiled, a cross recercelee. The arms of 
Antony Bek bishop of Durham (1284- 
13 10) and patriarch of Jerusalem were 
gules a jer-de-moline ermine^ and cert am 
vestments "woven with a cross of his arms 
which are called /<?rr2/w molendinV passed 
to his cathedral church at his death. On 
his seal of dignity the bishop is shown act- 
ually wearing such a vestment of his arms. 

The tau or St. Anthony's cross also 
occurs in some late fifteenth century arms. 


The small crosses with which the field Introduction 
of a shield was sometimes powdered were 
usually what are now called crosslets, but 
with rounded instead of the modern squared 
angles, as in the Beauchamp arms (fig. 14), 
and a field powdered with these was simply 
called crusily. But the powdering some- 
times consisted of crosses paty, or formy 
as they were also st^ded, as in the arms of 
Berkeley, or of the cross with crutched 
ends called a cross potent, like that in the 
arms of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. These 
crosses often had a spiked foot, as if for 
fixing them in the ground, and were then 
further described as fitchy or crosses 

Since the elucidation of the artistic rather 
than the scientific side of heraldry is the 
object of this present work, it is advisable 
to show how it may best be studied. 

The artistic treatment of heraldry can 
only be taught imperfectly by means of 
books, and it is far better that the student 
should be his own teacher by consulting 
such good examples of heraldic art as may 
commonly be found nigh at hand. He 
may, however, first equip himself to ad- 
vantage with a proper grasp of the subject 
by reading carefully the admirable article 


Introduction on Heraldry, by Mr. Oswald Barron, in 
the new eleventh edition of The Encyclo- 
pcsdia Britannic a. 

The earliest and best of artistic authorities 
are heraldic seals. Thesecameintocommon 
use towards the end of the twelfth century, 
much at the same time that armory itself 
became a thing of life, and they were con- 
stantly being engraved for men, and even 
for women, who bore and used arms, and 
for corporate bodies entitled to have seals. 

Moreover, since every seal was pro- 
duced under the direction of its owner and 
continually used by him, the heraldry dis- 
played on seals has a personal interest of 
the greatest value, as showing not only 
what arms the owner bore, but how they 
were intended to be seen. 

From seals may be learnt the different 
shapes of shields, and the times of their 
changes of fashion ; the methods of depict- 
ing crests ; the origin and use of sup- 
porters ; the treatment of the 'words' and 
* reasons' now called mottoes; the various 
ways of combining arms to indicate alliances, 
kinships, and official connexions ; and the 
many other effective ways in which heraldry 
maybe treated artistically without breaking 
the rigid rules of its scientific side. 


Seals, unfortunately, owing to their in- Introduction 
accessibility, are not so generally available 
for purposes of study as some other 
authorities. They are consequently com- 
paratively little known. Fine series, both 
of original impressions and casts, are on 
exhibition in the British and the Victoria 
and Albert museums, and in not a few 
local museums also,* but the great collec- 
tion in the British Museum is practically 
the only public one that can be utilized to 
any extent by the heraldic student, and 
then under the limitation of applying for 
each seal by a separate ticket. 

The many examples of armorial seals 
illustrated in the present work will give 
the student a good idea of their importance 
and high artistic excellence. 

Next to the heraldry on seals, that dis- 
played on tombs and monuments, and in 
combination with architecture, may be 
studied, and, of course, with greater ease, 
since such a number of examples is avail- 
able. Many a village church is compara- 
tively as rich in heraldry as the abbey 

* It would surely not be a matter of much diffi- 
culty or expense to equip the leading schools of art 
in this country with sets of casts of these beautiful 


Introduction churches of Westminster and St. Albans, 
or the minsters of Lincoln and York and 

It is to the countr}^ church, too, that we 
may often look for loveh'' examples of old 
heraldic glass, which has escaped the de- 
struction of other subjects that were deemed 
more superstitious (pis. i, ii and rii). 

But the student is not restricted to 
ecclesiastical buildings in his search for 
good examples of heraldry. 

Inasmuch as there never was such a 
thing as an ecclesiastical style, it was quite 
immaterial to the medieval master masons 
whether they were called in to build a 
church or a gatehouse, a castle or a mansion, 
a barn or a bridge. The master carpenter 
worked in the same way upon a rood loft or 
a pew end as upon the screen or the coffer 
in the house of the lord ; the glazier filled 
alike with his coloured transparencies the 
bay of the hall, the window of the chapel, 
or that of the minster of the abbey ; and 
the tiler sold his wares to sacrist, church- 
warden, or squire alike. 

The applications of heraldry to architec- 
ture are so numerous that it is not easy to 
deal with them in any degree of connexion. 

Shields of arms, badges, crests, and 



supporters are freely used in every conceiv- Introduction 
able way, and on every reasonable place; 

Fig. 6. Heraldic candle-holder, etc. from the latten grate 
about the tomb of King Henry VH at Westminster. 

on gatehouses (figs. 3, 95, 96) and towers, 
on porches and doorways, in windows and 


Introduction on walls, on plinths, buttresses, and pin- 
nacles, on cornice, frieze, and parapet, on 

Fig. 7. Firedog with armorial bearings. 

chimne3^-pieces (figs. 8, 94) and spandrels, 
on vaults and roofs, on woodwork, metal- 
work (figs. 6, 7), and furniture of all 
kinds, on tombs, fonts, pulpits, screens and 


coffers, in painting, in glass, and on the tiles Introduction 
of the floor (figs, i, 9, 14). 

Though actual examples are now rare, 

Fig. 10. Seal of Richard duke of Gloucester, as 
admiral of England in Dorset and Somerset 
(1462), with arms on the mainsail of the ship. 

we know from pictures and monuments, 
and the tantalizing descriptions in inven- 
tories, to how large an extent heraldry 
was used in embroidery and woven work, 
on carpets and hangings, on copes and 


Introduction frontals, on gowns, mantles and jupes, on 
trappers and in banners, and even on the 
sails of ships (fig. lo). 

Wills and inventories also tell us that in 


l^>%:5?^>:*- ^ ^ -jF^jrnr^ ,[C(^^^%>^-is> - j 

Fig. II. Heraldic buckle from the effigy of 
Robert lord Hungerford {ob. 1459) in 
Salisbury cathedral church. 

Fig. 12. Heraldic buckle from the effigy of 
William lord Bardolf {ob. 1441) in Den- 
nington church, Suffolk. 

jewellery and goldsmiths' work (see figs. 
II and 12) heraldry played a prominent 
part, and by the aid of enamel it 
appeared in its proper colours, an ad- 

vantage not always attainable otherwise Introduction 
(fig. 13). Beautiful examples of heraldic 
shields bright with enamel occur in the 

Fig. 13. Enamelled shield with the arms of 
Ballard on the print of a mazer {c. 1445) 
at All Souls college, Oxford. 

abbey church of Westminster on the tombs 
of King Edward III and of William of 
Valence, and on the tombs at Canterbury 
and Warwick respectively of Edward 
prince of Wales and Richard Beauchamp 


Introduction earl of Warwick ; while in St. George's 
chapel in Windsor castle there are actually 
nearly ninety enamelled stall-plates of 
Knights of the Garter of earlier date than 
Tudor times, extending from about 1390 
to 1485, and forming in themselves a veri- 
table heraldic storehouse of the highest 
artistic excellence. (See pis. xv, xvi.) 

Another source of coloured heraldry is to 
be found in the so-called rolls of arms. 

While heraldry was a living art, it 
obviously became necessary to keep some 
record of the numerous armorial bearings 
which were already m use, as well as of 
those that were constantly being invented. 
This seems to have been done by entering 
the arms on long rolls of parchment. In 
the earliest examples these took the form 
of rows of painted shields, with the owners' 
names written over (pi. iv) ; but in 
a few rare cases the blazon or written 
description of the arms is also given, while 
other rolls consist wholly of such descrip- 
tions, as in the well-known Great and 
Boroughbridge Rolls. These have a special 
value in supplAnng the terminology of 
the old heraldry, but this belongs to the 
science or grammar and not the art of it. 
The pictured rolls on the other hand clearly 




Fig. 14. Heraldic paving tiles from Tewkesbury abbey. The 
three uppermost bear the arms of Despenser, Berkeley, and 
Beauchamp, and the large one the arms of Robert Fitz- 
Hamon, the founder, impaled with the singular cross of the 

Introduction belong to the artistic side, and as they date 
from the middle of the thirteenth century 
onwards, they show how the early heralds 
from time to time drew the arms they 
wished to record. 


%IP~iit pn- 

r 1^ doii t^z^jt ii^jyir9<t/;^J«l&i 

•itftViftaH %1h ^AvHci^ JMt U^<Hii|»*# <Sdt 3c Lon^^- 




Early Forms of Shields; Later Forms; Shields 
of Irregular Outline and Surface; The Filling of 
a Shield; Apparent versus Absolute Uniformity; 
Modern Rules as to Proportion; the Use 
and Abuse of Quartering: its Origin and 
Growth; Differencing of Arms; The Scutcheon 
of Ulster; Diapering. 

From these preliminary remarks we may 
pass to the practical consideration of the 
principles of heraldic art. 

And first as to shields andtheirtreatment. 

The form of a shield is in itself entirely 
arbitrary and void of meaning. Although it 
varied from time to time, this was simply a 
matter of fashion, like the shape of an arch 
or the pattern of a window. Such changes 
must not, however, be overlooked, for it 
would be absurd in actual practice to use 
an ornate shield of the style of the fifteenth 
or sixteenth century for a lion of (say) the 
thirteenth century type, or to fill a shield 
of early form with charges characteristic of 
a later date. 

E 65 

The Shield During the twelfth century, shields were 

and Its more or less kite-shaped, like those that 
ireatment ,, i i • i i • i 

were actually used, but in the thirteenth 

century they began to be shorter and 

straighter across the top. Good examples 

Fig. 15. Shield with rounded corners {c. 1259) 
of Richard earl of Cornwall in the quire of 
Westminster abbey church. 

of this type may be found on seals. In 
the aisles behind the quire of Westminster 
abbey church, the beautiful shields in the 
spandrels of the wall arcade, of a date not 
later than 1259, retain their rounded upper 
corners. (See figs. 2 and 15.) The next 

form, with the upper corners square The Shield 

(figs. 1 6, 17), came into vogue in the ^ ^"^ '^^ 

J 1 ir r u u- 1 1 Treatment 

second half or the thirteenth century, and 

has continued always in use. Owing to the 

Fig. 16. Shields of English work from the tomb 
of William earl of Pembroke {ob. 1296) in 
Westminster abbey church. 

elastic way m which its curves can be 
slightly altered when required, it may 
safely be adopted in general practice. In 
the earliest examples the curves begin at 
the top, or just below, but later on they 
were so struck as to increase the area 


The Shield of the lower part of the shield in order 

and Its ^Q make more room for the charges. In 
1 reatment p , . i • i 

some fourteenth century mstances the sides 

continue straight nearly to the bottom, so 

that the shield is practically an oblong with 

rounded lower corners, like the shields of 

Fig. 17. Seal of Hugh Bardolf showing shield 
with square corners. From the Barons' 

the royal arms on our coinage to-day 
(figs. 18 and pi. VI a). A tendency in 
the same direction is not uncommon 
throughout the fifteenth century. About 
the middle of the same century the fash- 
ion began to prevail, alongside the other, 
of representmg a man's arms on the same 
irregularly-shaped shield that he was wont 
to carry in the jousts. This is as wide at 
the bottom as the top, with its outline 
worked into curves, and has on the dexter, 
or right-hand side as borne, a deep notch 

for the lance to rest in during tilting ; the The Shield 
top and bottom of the shield are often sub- ^ ^"^ ^^^ 
divided into three or more lobes or shallow 

Fig. i8. Seal and counterseal of Simon lord of Montagu, 
with shield of unusual form supported by two bearded 
men and surmounted by the castle of Corfe of which 
Simon became governor in 1298. The quadrangular 
signet displays a griffin. From the Barons' Letter. 


The Shield 

and its 

curves. Good examples occur on seals and 
monuments, and some of the Garter stall- 
plates. (See pis. V A and b ; vi b ; xvii ; 
and XXIII a.) Shields of a more ornate form 

Fig. 19. Shield of ornate form, from a brass 
at Stoke Poges, Bucks, 1476. 

are occasional!}^ to be met with, like an ex- 
ample (fig. 19) on a brass at Stoke Poges of 
the date 1476, with graceful leaf-work curl- 
ing over at the top and bottom. Shields 
similarly ornamented occur on the door- 

PLATE V. — Examples of shaped shields. 
A John Tiptoft earl of Worcester, 1449. 
B William Herbert earl of Huntingdon, 1479. 

way of a citizen's house now built into the The Shield 
Guildhall at Norwich (fig. 20). ^"^ its 

In the simpler forms the field of a shield 
in painted representations is invariably 
shown flat ; but in carvings, and occasion- 
ally on seals, a slight convexity, or even 
concavity, is often met with, the artistic 
advantages of which it is unnecessary to 
enlarge upon. In some of the later ornate 
forms, like those described above, the 
incurved or engrailed edge is accompanied 
by a field worked with a series of ridges 
and furrows (figs. 21 and 23). The 
effect of this may be good, but there is a 
danger of carrying it to excess and so in- 
juring the appearance of the charges. If 
the shield be well covered by the bearings 
on it, it is generally better to use one of 
simple form than one with an irregular 
outline and ridged surface ; but there is, 
of course, no reason why both forms should 
not be used concurrently in architectural or 
other works, as they sometimes were of old. 

The same principle as the ridging of a 
shield to relieve the plain surface was also 
applied to the ordinaries upon it. An early 
example may be seen upon the tomb of 
queen Eleanor at Westminster, which has 
the bends in the shields of Ponthieu ridged 



John Mowbray, duke of Norfolk and earl marshal. 1442. 

PLATE VI. — Various shapes of shields. 

along the middle line. The shield borne The Shield 

by Brian FitzAlan (ob. 1302) in his effigy „ ^"^ '^^ 

r>jii 1 1 L ri- i reatment 

at Bedale has the alternate bars ot his arms 

{harry of eight pieces gold and gules) treated 

in the same way. Another instance may 

Fig. 21. Shield with engrailed edges (c. 1520) 
from the chantry chapel of abbot Thomas 
Ramryge in St. Albans abbey church. 

be seen on the effigy of Sir Richard 
Whatton {c. 1325) at Whatton, Notts, in 
which a bend though charged is ridged. 
The shields on the tomb of Guy lord 
Bryen {ob. 1390) at Tewkesbury (fig. 22) 
furnish typical later examples, while during 
the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries 
instances are as common as the curved and 


The Shield ridged shields described above, especially as 

and Its regards crosses and saltires, as at St. Albans, 
Ireatment u r^ t /^i l /r n 

the George Inn at Cjlastonbury (hg. 23), 

and elsewhere. 

In monumental effigies the shield borne 

by a knight often has a convex or rounded 

Fig. 22. Shields with ridged charges, from the 
monument of Guy lord Bryen (ob. 1390) in 
Tewkesbury abbey church. 

surface (fig. 24), and in late fifteenth 
century and Tudor architecture otherwise 
flat shields sometimes have the middle 
swelled out, as on dean Gunthorpe's oriel 
at Wells, in a manner very popular in 
Renaissance work. (See figs. 11 1 and 195.) 
A reference to a number of good ancient 
examples of heraldic shields or banners will 
disclose the care that has been taken to 
occupy the field, as far as possible, with 
whatever is placed upon it (figs. 25, 26, 
27). A lion or an eagle, for mstance, will 


The Shield have the Hmbs and extremities so spread 
and Its Qm- ^g ^Q f^ll every available space ; and 
Ireatment , -n i r i • 

the same will be round in every group or 

Fig. 24. Shield with curved surface from an 
effigy of a Pembridge at Clehonger, Here- 

combination of objects capable of arrange- 
ment or extension. 

Even with most unpromising combina- 
tions, or a group that cannot be extended or 


modified at all, or with a single charge like The Shield 

a fleur-de-lis, or ordinary such as a bend ^ ^"" '^^ 
.p s , 1/1 \ 1 reatment 

(hg. 30), pale, or cheveron (pi. viii a), 

a judicious adjustment of proportions, or 

Fig. 25. Shield from the seal of Henry Percy 
(from the Barons' Letter) with well-drawn 

some equally common-sense method, en- 
abled a medieval artist to make his shield 
look well. 

Another point that may be noticed in 
all old work is, that in shields containing 
several similar objects, no two are exactly 


The Shield alike. If the charges be, for example, 
and Its three roses or three roundels or thi 


[ions (fig 

be placed in the 


Fig. 26. Shield with a leaping lion, from 
a brass {c. 1380) at Felbrigge in Norfolk. 

upper and the third in the lower part of 
the shield. But the latter will often be 
somewhat larger than the others, and these, 
in turn, will differ slightly the one from 
the other as they do in nature. So, too, 


in a case like the three leopards of the King The Shield 

of England, whether displayed on shield or „ ^"^ ^^^ 

, ^ 1 ri I Ireatment 

in banner, no two are exactly alike, but 

Fig. 27. Shield with an eagle from a brass 
at Great Tew, Oxon, c. 1410. 

each differs somewhat from another in 
pose or in size (fig. 32). Even when 
the same charge is repeated many times, 
like the fleurs-de-lis in the old arms 


The Shield of France, any possible chance of mechan- 

and Its [^^\ monotony is avoided by a trifling 

1 reatment ...-:, ^ | . , *= 

variation in the shape or each, as in the 

shield of the King of France in the early 

series at Westminster (fig. 34). 

Another fact is that in the old work 

Fig. 28. Seal of Queen's College, Oxford, 
1341, with well-filled shields. 

lines and curves are hardly ever quite true, 
but drawn by hand instead of with pen or 
compasses. The modern artist, on the 
contrary, usually draws his lines and curves 
with mechanical precision ; his charges are 
exact copies one of another; the fact that 
they do not fill the field (pace the royal 
arms on the coinage) is to him quite un- 
important, and the final result is that under 
no circumstances will his work look well. 

Even in old stencilling a pleasing effect The Shield 
never seen in modern work of the kind was ^^^ *^^ 
produced through a not too rigid adherence 
to a regularity of application. 


Fig. 29. Shield with a griffin, from a brass 
of 1405 at Boughton-under-Blean, Kent. 

Another cause of the bad effect of much 
modern heraldry is the unnecessary adher- 
ence to the rules laid down in some of the 
textbooks and manuals as to the relative 

The Shield widths of ordinaries and subordinaries. 

and Its YYiQ q\^ heralds certainly did not fetter 
1 reatment 

Fig. 30. Seal of Peter de Mauley IV (from the 
Barons' Letter) showing a simple well-balanced 

Fig. 31. Shield with a bend counter-flowered from 
the brass of Sir Ihomas Bromfleet, 1430, at 
Wymington, Beds, 


themselves with such shackles. A cheveron, The Shield 
a bend, a fesse, or a cross was drawn of the ^"*^ ^^^ 
best proportion to look well (figs. 35, 36). 
If charged it would be wider than when 

Fig. 32. Shield with three lions, from a 
brass at Stanford Dingley, Berks, 1444. 

plain. If placed between charges it was 
drawn narrower, if itself uncharged, and 
thus took its proper relative position with 
regard to the size and arrangement of 
the charges. So too with a border; if 
uncharged or merely gobon)^ (i.e. formed 
of short lengths of alternate colours) or 




Fig. 33. Shield of the royal arms done in boiled 
leather, from the tomb of Edward prince of 
Wales at Canterbury, 1376. 

engrailed, it was drawn very narrow, and The Shield 
even if charged it was not allowed much ^"^ ^^^ 
greater width (figs. 38, 39). It thus 
never unduly encroached upon the field or 



Fig. 34. Shield of the King of France, c. 1259, in the 
quire of Westminster abbey church 

other contents of the shield, and yet re- 
mained an artistic addition in itself. The 
curious bordering known as the tressure, 
which is almost peculiar to Scotland, and 
familiar to us through its occurrence in the 
shield of our Sovereign, is drawn suffi- 
ciently narrow in all good examples to leave 


The Shield 

and its 

ample room for the ramping lion it fences 
in, and its frieze of fleurs-de-lis is formed of 
a good number of flowers, instead of the 
eight considered suflficient in the royal arms 
of to-day. Even a chief, if necessary, was 
enlarged from the *'less than one-third of 
the shield" of to-day to the one-half of it, 
or even more, as may be seen in some of 
the examples of the arms of the monastery 
in the abbey church of Westminster, or in 
those of the town of Southampton. 

Another feature of early heraldry which 
it is well to bear in mind is the sparing use 
of what is known as quartering, or the 
method of combining in one shield the arms 
of two or more persons or families. One 
of our oldest instances of this occurs on the 
tomb of Queen Eleanor, the first wife of 
King Edward I, at Westminster, and shows 
her paternal arms of Castile and Leon so 
arranged (fig. 40). Another early example 
occurs in the Great Roll, teyjip. Edward II, 
where the arms of Sir Simon Montagu {ob. 
c. 1 3 1 6) , silver a Jesse indented gules of three 
indentures, are quartered with azure a gold 
griffin. So long as the shield contained only 
four quarters, with the first and fourth, 
and the second and third, respectively, alike, 
theeflTect was often good, as in the cases just 

The Shield noted, or in the beautiful arms of France and 
and Its ^ England combined used after 1340 by King 
Edward III (fig. 41). There are also many 
examples, as in the well-known bearings of 


Fig. 37. Shield with a charged bend from 
a brass at Kidderminster, 1415. 

the Veres and of the Despensers, where 
a quarterly disposition of the shield forms 
the basis of the arms. But when, as became 
common in the fifteenth centur}^, quarters 
were multiplied or subdivided, the artistic 

Queen Anne of Bohemia, 1382. 

John of Gaunt's privy seal as King of Castile, 1372. 

PLATE VII.— Examples of Quartering. 

effect of the old simple shield was lost or The Shield 

destroyed. As the principle was further ^^ ^'^^ ^^^ 

; 1 ■ ^^ ' '-r ^ i p 1 reatment 

extended, especially in 1 udor and htewart 

times, the result became more and more 
confused in appearance, until the field 
resembled rather a piece of coloured patch- 
work than a combination of various arms 
all more or less beautiful in themselves. 

The origin and growth of these combina- 
tions, which actually are perfectly lawful 
and proper, and yet often quite accidental, 
can easily be illustrated by a few typical 

In 1382 King Richard II, who used the 
same arms as his grandfather, a quarterly 
shield of Old France and England, married 
Anne of Bohemia, daughter of the Emperor 
Charles IV. As her shield was also a 
quartered one, the combined arms of the 
king and his queen, as shown upon her 
seal, formed a shield of eight quarters 
(pi. VII a). This was further complicated 
through the later assumption by King 
Richard of the arms assigned to St. 
Edward (fig. 43), a cross between five 
birds ; and the eight-quartered shield with 
this clumsy addition at one side may be 
seen on the Felbrigge brass. 

These arms of St. Edward were used for 


The Shield 

and its 

Fig. 40. Quartered shield of Queen Eleanor of Cas- 
tile, from her tomb at Westminster, 1291. 

a time duly 'differenced' in conjunction 
with his own quarterly arms by Henry of 


The Shield Lancaster, afterwards King Henry IV, and 

and Its ^j.g impaled with those of his wife, Mary 

de Bohun, on his seal (1399) as duke of 

Hereford. Artistically the lop-sided effect 

so produced is quite unhappy. 

Many fifteenth century shields show 

Fig. 41. Arms of King Edward III, from 
his tomb at Westminster. 

forth, by the simple quartering of a man's 
arms with those of his wife or his mother, 
his succession or summons as a lord of 
parliament, or his inheritance of great 

But this simplicity was gradually de- The Shield 
stroyed when the added quartering was ^ ^"" ^^^ 
itself quartered, as in the arms of Richard 

Fig. 42. Shield with impaled quarters from 
the brass of Peter Halle, c. 1420, at Heme 
in Kent. 

Nevill earl of Salisbury (see pis. xvii a and 
XXII B),or the quarteringswere all different, 
as in the case of Humphrey Stafford duke 


The Shield of Buckingham. When but a year old he 

and Its succeeded his father as earl of Stafford, 

Ireatment j , . i ' j i i i i 

and on his mother s death he became earl 

Fig. 43. Arms of St. Edward, from the tomb of Ed- 
mund duke of York, ob. 1402, at King's Langley. 

of Buckingham, Hereford, Northampton, 
Essex, and Perche ! These dignities are 


Fig. 44. Seal of Humphrey Stafford earl of Buckingham, 
Hereford, Stafford, Northampton, and Perche, as captain 
of Calais and Lieutenant of the Marches, 1442. 

The Shield duly displayed in the quarterings of his arms 
and Its Qpj i^jg ^q2l\, as follows : I . The quartered arms 
of his mother, for the earldom of Bucking- 
ham, 2. Bohun of Hereford, 3. Bohun of 
Northampton, 4. Stafford (fig. 44). 

When Henry duke of Buckingham suc- 
ceeded in 1460 to all the dignities of duke 
Humphrey his grandfather, he wisely 
elected, by the advice of the kings-of-arms, 
to drop the above quarterings, and to use 
only the arms of his great-grandmother, 
who as sister and heir of Humphrey duke 
of Gloucester and earl of Buckingham 
bore France and England quarterly within a 
border silver. 

About 1433 Margaret, daughter of 
Richard Beauchamp earl of Warwick, was 
married to John Talbot earl of Shrews- 
bury, and she thereupon had a beautiful 
seal engraved, with two large shields of 
arms hung side by side by their straps 
from a ragged staff, the badge of her 
father's house (pi. xxvii b). This charm- 
ing composition is, however, quite spoilt 
through the complicated treatment of the 
shields. One of these bears the arms of 
husband and wife conjoined, the other 
those of the lady's father. The earl of 
Warwick's shield is a quartered one of 


Beauchamp and Newburgh, with a small The Shield 

superimposed scutcheon. The earl of„^"^'^^ 
c\ 1 > 1 • J r r Ireatment 

Shrewsbury s arms also consisted of tour 

quarters, to which his wife added her four 

(omitting the scutcheon), and thus made a 

patchwork of eight. 

A more remarkable and equally accidental 
case may be illustrated by the brass of Sir 
Humphrey Bourchier (1471) in the abbey 
church of Westminster. 

This displays four shields : one has the 
arms of Bourchier quartering Lovain and 
impaling the quarterly arms of Berners ; 
and another, the six quarterings of Sir 
Humphrey's wife, Elizabeth Tylney. In 
a third shield these are quite properly 
impaled, with a resultant of fourteen 
quarters. In the fourth shield these are 
quartered together, and so produce a 
dreadful confusion of twenty-eight quar- 
ters ! It is not necessary here to show how 
these shields might have been simplified in 
themselves, but from the artistic standpoint 
there cannot be any doubt that the two first 
should at least have been kept separate. 
The many other examples to be found in 
the illustrations of this book will serve as 
useful reminders of the greater advantage 
artistically of simpler treatment. 

G 97 

The Shield It is moreover well to remember that in 

and Its ^YiQ majority of cases there is not the least 
Ireatment i • i i i 

need m actual work to produce a great 

many quarterings in a shield. In numerous 

examples, especially in the sixteenth century 

and later, they were assumed merely for 

display, and to reduce them to a reasonable 

few is often a most desirable thing. 

It is difficult without knowledge of 
individual cases to lay down any definite 
rules for dealing with quarterings, but 
there can be no question that in general 
a shield looks best without any at all. In 
the case of a man with a compound name 
or title, who represents more than one 
family or dignity, it would be legitimate 
to add a quartering on that account, but 
only of the actual arms of the family or 
dignity represented. It is however so 
hard to draw a line or to restrain the 
wishes of clients that the fifteenth century 
example of Henry duke of Buckingham 
should ever be borne in mind. • 

As soon as the principle of hereditary 
descent of armorial bearings became estab- 
lished, the necessity arose of making some 
slight difference between the arms of a 
father and those borne by his sons. This 
was usually done by adding to the paternal 


arms such more or less unobtrusive device The Shield 

as a label, or narrow border, or a small „ ^"^ ^^^ 

, ,., 1 Ireatment 

charge like a crescent or a molet. 

The lord John of Eltham, son of King 
Edward II, bears upon his tomb at West- 
minster a beautifully carved shield of the 
arms of England differenced by a border 
of France ; and one of the sons of King 
Edward III, Thomas of Woodstock, 
differenced his father's arms by a silver 
border, as at an earlier period did Edmund 
earl of Kent, the youngest son of King 
Edward I. 

The label is a narrow band with long 
pendent strips or pieces, usually three, 
but sometimes four or five in number, 
placed upon and across the upper part 
of a shield (fig. 45). It is now used 
to distinguish the arms of an eldest son 
from those of his father, but this was 
not always the rule, and younger sons of 
King Henry III and King Edward I, and 
at least three of the sons of King Edward 
III, besides the Prince of Wales, bore dis- 
tinctive labels for difference. Anciently, 
the label was very narrow, and the pendent 
pieces of equal or nearly equal width 
throughout, even when charged with de- 
vices, as they sometimes were. The colour 


The Shield was also a matter of choice. The first 

and Its three Edwards, during their fathers' Hfe- 
Ireatment • • i i i i i i i 

time, successively bore blue labels, some- 
times of three, sometimes of five pieces, 

Fig. 45. Shield of Sir Hugh Hastings, from 
the Elsing brass (1347), with diapered 
maunch and a label of three pieces. 

while the younger brother of King Edward 
I, Edmund earl of Lancaster, used a label 
of France (blue with gold fleurs-de-lis) 
of four pieces, and Thomas of Brotherton, 

second son of King Edward I, a silver label The Shield 
of three pieces. ™ ^^^ ^^^ 

In the case of the sons of King Edward 
III, the Prince of Wales bore at first a 
silver label of five and later of three pieces ; 
Lionel duke of Clarence seems to have 
borne at one time a gold label with a red 
cross on each piece for Ulster, and at 
another a silver label charged on each piece 
with a red quarter for Clare ; John of 
Gaunt duke of Lancaster bore an ermine 
label for his earldom of Richmond (pi. ii) ; 
and Edmund duke of York a silver label 
with three red roundels on each piece 
(pi. XXI b). The rolls of arms furnish 
instances of labels of all colours, and with 
pieces charged with various devices such 
as leopards, eagles, castles, martlets, etc. 

Differencing with labels was likewise 
extended to crests, and a good example 
may be seen on the monument of Edward 
prince of Wales {ob. 1376), at Canterbury 
(fig. 46), as well as in fig. 139. 

In modern heraldry the label is often 
drawn unduly wide, with short and ugly 
wedge-shaped pieces hanging from or 
sticking on to it, and sometimes it does not 
even extend to the sides of the shield. 
The result is that instead of its being a 


The Shield comparatively unobtrusive addition to the 
and Its arms the label becomes unduly conspicuous 

Ireatment , -j r n • • rr 

and void or all artistic errect. 

Fig. 46. Part of the gilt-latten effigy of Edward 
prince of Wales at Canterbury, showing labels 
over both the arms and the crest. 

The old way of differencing by the ad- 
dition of a crescent J molet,or similar device, 

was generall}^ carried out in quite an artistic The Shield 

fashion on account of the care taken to „ ^"" ^^^ 

, II- 11 r -A reatment 

place the device agreeabi}^, a favourite 

position being on the principal ordinary or 

charge of the arms. 

Many cadets of the great family of 
Nevill, for example, differenced the arms 
of their house, gules a saltire silvery by 
placing the device on the middle of the 
saltire, and some of the Beauchamps placed 
the differencing mark on the fesse of their 
arms. In other cases the device was placed 
in the upper part of the shield, or in some 
other such point where it would least inter- 
fere with or be confounded with the charges. 

One of the most difficult differences an 
artist has to contend with to-day is the sil- 
ver scutcheon with a red hand which is 
placed upon the arms of baronets. Its 
position of course varies, and may often be 
altered with advantage, and it looks all the 
better if drawn not unduly large and with 
a simple heater-shaped shield. But some 
artists wisely leave it out altogether. 

In the case of all devices introduced as 
differences it will generally be found ad- 
visable to draw them to a somewhat 
smaller scale than the charges already in 
the arms. 


Fig. 47. Diapered shield of the arms of Vere, from 
an effigy in Hatfield Broadoak church, Essex.. 

CO V0NW>^ 

In many ancient heraldic shields, espe- The Shield 
cially in painted glass, and to a lesser ^"^ '^^ 
extent in carved work and on seals, the 
plain uncharged surfaces of the field or 
ordinaries are relieved by covering them 

Fig. 48. Diapered shield from the seal of 
Robert Waldby archbishop of York, 1390, 
for the regality of Hexham. 

with the purely ornamental decoration 
called diapering (figs. 45, 48). An 
early instance in relief occurs on the 
shield of the efiigy in the Templars' 
church in London usually ascribed to 
Geoffrey de Magnavilla ; and another 
delicately sculptured example of later date 


The Shield is to be seen on the Vere effigy in 

and Its £gy Broadoak church in Essex (fig. 
1 reatment ^ ^ 



Fig. 49. Diapered Shield of the arms of Clun, 
from the monument of the lady Eleanor 
Percy {ob. 1337) in Beverley Minster. 

Several fine instances of painted diapering 
will be found in Stothard's Monumental 

Effigies. This beautiful treatment has, The Shield 
happily, been largely revived of late years „ ^"" '^^ 

Fig. 50. Diapered shield of the arms of Percy, 
from the monument of the lady Eleanor 
Percy {ob. 1337) in Beverley Minster. 

by the glass painters, who use it quite 
successfully, probably from the ease with 


The Shield which in their case it can be appHed. 

and Its Modern carvers use it very sparingly, and 
1 reatment , • , . . , i 1 1 r i • • 

this perhaps is as it should be, tor diapering 

needstobe done with great skill in sculpture 

to look well. A careful study therefore of old 

examples is advisable, in order thoroughly to 

understand the principles of its application. 

Some of the finest diapered shields in 
carved work occur in the spandrels of the 
splendid monument of the lady Eleanor 
Percy in Beverley Minster (figs. 49, 50). 
Good instances are to be found on seals, 
and a number of these are here illustrated in 
order to show the proper treatment of dia- 
pering. (See pis. VIII. XII. and xxvii a.) 

It is of course to be borne in mind that 
diapering is merely a surface decoration, 
and it must not on any account be empha- 
sized by any difference of colour from that 
of the field or ordinary it relieves, nor 
must it be treated with such prominence 
as to render it liable to be mistaken for a 
charge or charges. 

Diapering can be represented effectively 
in embroidered work by the use of flowered 
or patterned damasks, as may be seen in 
the banners in St. Paul's cathedral church 
in the chapel of the Order of St. Michael 
and St. George. 





Armorial Bearings of Ladies ; Use of Lozenges 
and Roundels as variant forms of Shields ; Arms 
of Men on Lozenges; Combinations of Shields 
with Lozenges and Roundels of Arms on Seals 
and in Embroideries 

Before leaving the subject of the shield 
a few words must be written about the 
armorial bearings of ladies. 

It has always been the practice for the 
daughters of a house to bear, without 
difference or alteration, the arms of their 
father. This practice has been departed 
from only in quite modern times, by the 
addition of distinctive labels to the arms 
borne by our prmcesses. To the manner 
in which married ladies have arranged or 
'marshalled' their arms reference will be 
made later, but it is necessary here to call 
attention to the fact that it has been 
customary for a long time to place the 
arms of widows and single ladies upon 
shields that are lozenge-shaped. A good 


The Shield early example is that from the monument 

and Its jpj Westminster abbey church of Frances 
1 reatment ■" 

Fig. 51. Lozenge of arms from the monument 
at Westminster of Frances Brandon duchess 
of Suffolk, ob. 1559. 

Brandon duchess of Suffolk, oh. 1559, 
shown in fig. 51. 

This singularly inconvenient form of 
shield, upon which it is often impossible 


to draw the arms properly, began to be The Shield 
used early in the fourteenth century. _ ^"^ *^^ 

T ' 1 1 r 1 reatment 

it was not, however, used tor or re- 
stricted to the arms of ladies, since the 
evidence of seals shows that it was at first 
used to contain the armorial bearings of 
men. There can likewise be little doubt 
that it and the roundel, which was also 
charged with arms, were contemporane- 
ously invented by the seal engravers as 
variants from the ordinary form of shield ; 
and it is interesting to note that the 
majority of the examples occur on seals 
which have a background or setting of 
elaborate tracery. 

The roundel seems to have originated in 
the covering of the entire field of a circular 
seal with the arms of its owner, such as 
the leopards of England which are so 
disposed in a counterseal of Edward of 
Carnarvon as prince of Wales. Two seals 
of John of Gaunt duke of Lancaster, 
engraved probably in 1372, show a similar 
treatment : the one bearing his arms 
impaling, and the other his arms im- 
paled with, those of Castile and Leon 
(pi. VII b). The former commemorates 
his marriage with Constance of Castile, 
and the latter the duke's claim in right 


The Shield 

and its 

of his wife to the kingdom of Castile 

A large enamelled roundel, party gules an 
azure with a gold charbocle, accompanies 
the shield and crested helm which, with it, 
form the stall-plate of Ralph lord Bassett 
(c. 1390) at Windsor. 

One of the lesser seals appended to the 

Fig. 52. Seal of Robert FitzPain 
with arms in an oval. 

Barons' Letter, that of Robert Fitz Pain, 
is an oval filled with the owner's arms 

(fig. 52). 

One of the earliest examples of arms on 
a lozenge is on a seal of Thomas Furnival, 
who died in 1279, and another but little 
later is furnished by the seal of William 
de Braose, appended to a deed of either 
1282 or 1 3 14 at Magdalen College, Oxford 
(pi. IX b). 

William Braose 

? 1282. 

Parnell Bensted, 
in 1359, 

D E 

Elizabeth of Clare. 

PLATE IX.— Use of lozenges and roundels of arms. 

That of William Paynel, appended to The Shield 

the Barons' Letter, also has his arms on a _ ^"^ '^^ 
I / , X 1 reatment 

lozenge (pi. ix a). 

The first seal of a lady in which lozenges 

of arms occur is probably that of Joan, 

daughter of Henry count of Barre and 

Fig. 53. Seal of Joan de Barre, wife of John 
de Warenne earl of Surrey, 1306. 

Eleanor daughter of King Edward I, who 
married in 1306, John de Warenne earl of 
Surrey (fig. 53). This has five lozenges 
arranged in cross : that in the middle has 
her husband's checkers, those on each side 
her father's barbels, etc., and those above 
and below the three leopards of England. 
The lady's descent from King Edward is 
further shown by the castles and lions of his 
consort Eleanor of Castile. 

H 113 

Another interesting example, of a date 
about 1320, is the seal of Parnel, daughter 
of H. de Grapenell, and widow (i) of John 
Fitzjohn and (2) of Sir John Bensted {ob. 
1323). This has in the middle a shield of 
the arms of Bensted, gules three gold gemell- 
barsy between four lozenges, apparently 
for Grapenell and Fitz-John (pi. ix c). 

Contemporary with Parnel Bensted's 
seal are two others in which roundels are 
used instead of lozenges. Both are tra- 
ceried seals of Elizabeth daughter of 
Gilbert of Clare earl of Gloucester, and 
Joan daughter of King Edward I and 
Queen Eleanor of Castile. She was thrice 
married : first, about 1306 to John of Burgh, 
son of Richard earl of Ulster; secondly 
to Theobald lord Verdon ; and thirdly to 
Roger lord d'Amory, who died in 1322. 

One of these seals has in the middle, in 
a shield, Elizabeth's own arms of Clare 
impaling Burgh within a black border be- 
dewed with tears. Above and below are 
roundels of Clare, and on either side other 
roundels of Verdon and d'Amory. In the 
interspaces are the castles and lions of 
Castile and Leon (pi. ix d). 

The other seal is similarly arranged, but 
has in the middle a large shield of d'Amory, 

between roundels of arms of the lady's The Shield 
other husbands above and below, and of ^"*^ ^^^ 
Clare for her father or herself on either 
side. The interspaces again contain castles 
and lions (pi. ix e). 

Four other early seals of great artistic 
merit displaying roundels may also be 
described, especially since they are ap- 
parently the work of the same engraver. 
They are filled with tracery, consisting of a 
triangle enclosing a circle, which contains 
a large shield, with cusped circles on its 
sides containing roundels or devices. 

The first is for Mary de Seynt-Pol, who 
married in 1322 Aymer of Valence earl of 
Pembroke (fig. 54). The shield bears the 
dimidiated arms of husband and wife ; on a 
roundel in base are the arms of her mother ; 
and higher up are roundels of England and 
France, out of compliment to King Edward 
II and Queen Isabel. 

The second is for John de Bohun earl 
of Hereford, and has a large shield of 
Bohun with roundels also of Bohun. It 
was probably engraved in 1322, and before 
the earl's marriage in 1325 (pi. x a). 

The third is for Richard FitzAlan earl 
of Arundel (1330-1), who succeeded to 
the vast Warenne estates in 1347. It has 



The Shield in the middle a shield of FitzAlan, and 
and Its about it three roundels with the checkers 
of Warenne. 

The fourth is for Hugh Courtenay earl 
of Devon (1334-5-40) or his son Hugh 
(1340-77). The shield displa3^s the arms 

Fig. 54. Seal of Mary de Seynt-Pol, wife of 
Aymer of Valence earl of Pembroke, 1322. 

of Courtenay and in each of the outer 
circles is a sexfoil (pi. x b). 

To these examples may be added a fifth 
of about the same date, for Henry Sturmy 
or Esturmy, lord of the forest of Savernake. 
This has the Sturmy shield in the middle, 
between two roundels of the Hussey arms, 
and a third roundel above with the tenure 
horn of Savernake Forest (pi. x c). 


Other seals that may be quoted in illus- The Shield 

tration of the indiscriminate use of shields, „ ^"'^ •^^ 

11 11 1 • 1 r i reatment 

roundels, and lozenges durmg the four- 
teenth century are those of: (i) Juliana, 
daughter of Thomas Leybourne, and wife 
of John lord Hastings {oh. 1325), with a 
shield of Hastings impaling Leybourne, 
encircled by six lozenges of arms indicative 
of other alliances and descents, derived 
from the fact of the lady having been 
married thrice ; (2) Elizabeth de Multon, 
wife of Walter Bermyngham, with the 
shield of Bermyngham surrounded by six 
roundels of other arms ; (3) Maud, daughter 
of Bartholomew Badlesmere, and wife in 
1336 of John de Vere earl of Oxford (fig. 
55), with a shield of Vere between lozenges 
of Clare, Badlesmere (her father and her- 
self), Clare with label (mother), and Fitz- 
Payn (first husband) ; (4) Maud daughter 
of Henry earl of Lancaster, married first 
to William of Burgh earl of Ulster, and 
secondly (in 1343-4) to Sir Ralph UfFord 
(fig. 56), with lozenges of Lancaster (father 
and herself) above and Chaworth (mother) 
below, and shields of Burgh and Ufford 
(husbands) ; (5) Sybil, daughter of William 
Montagu earl of Salisbury and Katharine 
Graunson, with shield of FitzAlan with a 


The Shield label, for her husband Sir Edmund of 
and Its Arundel, second son of Edmund FitzAlan 
earl of Arundel, between lozenges of 
Montagu and Graunson (pi. x e) ;* and (6) 
Elizabeth, widow of Sir Gilbert Elsefield, 
with a lozenge of Elsefield between four 
roundels of other arms (impression 1382-3). 

Fig. 55. Seal of Maud Badlesmere, wife of John 
de Vere earl of Oxford, 1336. 

Alice, wife of Thomas of Heslerton, 
has on her seal (impression 1374) a large 
lozenge of the arms of Heslerton {gules 
six silver lions with gold crowns) within a 
quatrefoil, outside of which are four small 
banners of arms with martlets between. 

Lastly ma}^ be noted a seal of Roger 
Foljambe, attached to a deed of 1396-7, 

* Impression attached to a deed in the British 
Museum, 1 3 50- 1. 


having a lozenge of his arms {a bend and The Shield 

six scallop shells) surrounded by his word or _ ^"^ ^^^ 

1 reatment 

But seals are not the only authorities 

for the indiscriminate use of roundels and 

lozenges as well as shields of arms. In the 

Victoria and Albert Museum at South 

Fig. 56. Seal of Maud of Lancaster, wife 
(i) of William of Burgh earl of Ulster and 
(2) of Sir Ralph UfFord, 1343-4. 

Kensington is an enamelled coffer of late 
thirteenth century work decorated with 
lozenges of arms of England, Valence, 
Dreux, Angouleme, Brabant, and Lacy. 
The famous Syon cope de opere Anglicano, 
also in the Victoria and Albert Museum, 
has the existing orphrey filled with large 
armorial roundels and lozenges, and its 
border is composed of a stole and fanon 
embroidered throughout with lozenges of 


The Shield arms. (See fig. 57.) Christchurch, Canter- 

and Its bury, in 131 1; possessed an albe 'sewn 
1 reatment • 1 1 • 1 1 r 1 1 • 

With lozenges with the arms or the king 

of England and of Leybourne,' * and 
another 'sewn with the arms of North- 
. wode and Ponyngg in squares ;'t also an 
albe 'sewn with divers arms in lozenges 
with purple frets with a stole and fanon of 
the same work,'J evidently not unlike 
those on the Syon cope. 

It may also be noted that the pillows 
beneath the head of the effigy at West- 
minster of Aveline countess of Lancaster 
{c. 1275) are both covered with heraldic 
lozenges : on the upper one with the arms 
of her husband alternating with the lion of 
Redvers ; on the lower with the vair cross 
on red of her father, William of Forz earl 
of Albemarle. The gilt metal bed plate 
under the effigy of William of Valence earl 
of Pembroke {ob. 1296), likewise at West- 
minster, is also covered with a lozengy 
diaper of England and Valence, still bright 

* 'consuta de losenges cum armis regis Anglie et 
de Leyburn.' 

t 'consuta de armis de Northwode et Ponyngg 
in quadrangulis.' 

I 'consuta de diversis armis in lozengis cum 
frectis purpureis cum stola et manipulo ejusdem 





The Shield With the original enamel ; the workman- 

and Its gi^jp Qf this, however, is probably French. 
Ireatment 4-, • • r i i i 

1 he restriction or the lozenge to the 

arms of ladies has clearly therefore no 

medieval precedent, and there is not any 

reason why the modern custom should not 

be set aside when for artistic reasons a shield 

or roundel is preferable. 


A Roger of Leybourne, ob. 1284. 

B Henry de Perci, in 1301. 

PLATE XI. — Early examples of crests. 



Origin of Crests; Earliest Example of Crests; 
Ways of wearing Crests ; The Helm and its 
Treatment ; Modern Use of Helms ; Absurd 
Crests ; Use of Crests other than by individuals ; 
The comparative sizes of Helms and Crests. 

A CREST was originally, as its name 
reminds us, a tuft or plume on the head of 
a bird. Such a plume or tuft, or bush 
as it was often called, was fixed in early 
times as an ornament on the top of a helm, 
of which it thus formed the crest. Other 
devices, such as could conveniently be so 
worn, were soon used for the same purpose, 
and like armorial bearings became asso- 
ciated with particular individuals. In later 
days, when the helm enveloped the whole 
head, the crest played a useful part in 
revealing the wearer's identity, though his 
face was hidden. 

One of the earliest suggestions of a 
crest in English armory appears on the 
second great seal (of 1198) of King 




of Crests 

Richard I, whose cylindrical helm has a 
leopard upon the cap with two wing-shaped 
fans above turned in opposite directions. 
On many seals of the second half of the 
thirteenth century, as for instance on those 
of Robert de Vere earl of Oxford (1263) 

Fig. 58. Seal of Thomas de Moulton, with 
fan-shaped crest on helm and horse's 
head. From the Barons' Letter. 

and Henry de Laci earl of Lincoln (1272), 
the knight is represented as riding in full 
armour, with the helm surmounted with a 
fan-shaped plume, which is also repeated 
upon the horse's head. (See also fig. 58 
and pi. XI b). 

PLATE XII.— Early uses of crests, on seals oi William 
Montagu earl of Salisbury, 1337-44. 

An early use of a crest proper is furnished The 
by the seal of Roger of Leybourne (ob. 1 284). Treatment 
This shows his shield of arms (bearing six 
lions) hung upon a tree, with his banner 
(charged with one lion only) behind, and at 
one side a helm with lion crest (pi. xi a). 
Thomas of Berkeley in 1295 has upon his 
seal a shield flanked by two mermaids and 
surmounted by a helm carrying a mitre for 
a crest. Thomas earl of Lancaster (1296) 
on two separate seals has a wiver, or two- 
legged dragon, upon his helm, and this again 
is repeated upon his horse's head (fig. 59). 
The seal of his brother Henry of Lancaster, 
appended to the Barons' Letter, also shows 
his helm crested with a wiver (fig. 60). 
Two other early examples of crests on seals 
from the Barons' Letter are shown in figs. 
61 and 62. Sir John Peche, on a seal ap- 
pended to a deed of 1323-4, has his shield 
flanked by wivers and surmounted by a 
helm with squirrel crest. William Montagu 
earl of Salisbury (1336-7), in the mounted 
figure of himself on his fine seal, has a 
demi-griffin fixed upon his crowned helm 
(pi. XII b), and King Edward III shows 
for the first time, on his seal of 1340, his 
crest of a crowned leopard standing upon 
the cap of estate which surmounts his helm. 


The During the first half of the fourteenth 

Treatment century there is an interesting diversity in 

Fig. 59. Seal of Thomas earl of Lancaster, Leicester, 
and Ferrers, showing wiver crest on his helm and 
horse's head. From the Barons' Letter. 

the manner of representing crests, when 
not being worn by their owners. 

William Montagu earl of Salisbury The 
shows on his counterseal (pi. xii a) his Treatment 
shield supported by two griffins, and en- 

' I 


Fig. 6o. Seal of Henry of Lancaster lord of Mon- 
mouth, with wiver crest and quasi-supporters. 

signed by the demi-griffin issuing from an 
open crown which in his seal he carries upon 
his helm. John Engayn, in 1349, has upon 
the upper edge of his shield a wolf or fox 


of Crests 

The walking under a tree. Henry duke of 
Treatment Lancaster (1341) ensigns the shield of his 
arms with a cap of estate 'surmounted by 
a leopard (pi. xiii c) ; and Peter de 
Mauley, the sixth of that name, in 1379-80 
has a seal with his simple arms (a be^id) 
supported by two ramping leopards, and 


Fig. 61. Seal of Robert 
de la Warde, with 
fan crest. 

Fig. 62. Seal of Walter 
de Mounci, with the 
helm surmounted by 
a fox as a crest. 

surmounted by a fierce dragon breathing 
defiance (pi. xx b). In none of these cases 
does a helm appear. 

After the middle of the fourteenth 
century the crest is invariabl}^ shown as 
part of the helm. 

The helm, it is hardly necessary to 
say, was such an one as formed part of 
the war harness of the time, and in the 


numerous armorial representations that The 

may be found on seals or on monuments Treatment 
", -1 1- • • 1 • • 1 1 1 or Crests 

or buildings it is almost invariably shown 

in profile. This was, however, merely on 
account of its being the most conven- 
ient way of displaying the crest, and 
in accordance with the usual medieval 
common-sense, examples are to be found 
which show the helm and crest facing the 

Thus Thomas de Holand (1353) has on 
his seal a shield of his arms hung from a 
tree and flanked by two fronting helms, 
each encircled by a crown and surmounted 
by a huge bush of feathers ; Sir Robert de 
Marni (1366) flanks his shield, which is 
also hung from a tree, with two fronting 
helms, each crested with a tall pair of wings 
rising from the sides of a cap of estate (fig. 
63) ; Sir Stephen Hales (1392-3) on his seal 
has a couched shield of his arms surmounted 
by a fronting helm, with a crown about it 
from which issue two fine wings ; Robert 
Dejaiela}^ (1394-5) i" ^^^^ manner shows 
his helm crested with two ears of a bat or 
hare; and Walter lord FitzWalter (141 5- 
31) has on his seal a couched shield, and 
on a fronting helm above a cap of estate 
surmounted by a star between two large 
I 129 

The wings (pi. xiii a). Another example of 

'^^r^?.^"^^"^ a fronting helm is shown in pi. v b. 
or Crests ^-i c ■ • 

Ihe present custom ot usmg various 

types of helm facing different ways to 

denote grades of rank is comparatively 

recent as well as often inconvenient, and 

utterly subversive of the proper method of 

Fig. 63. Seal of Sir Robert de Marni, 1366, 
with crested helms flanking the shield. 

displaying a crest, which should invariably 
face the same way as its wearer. This fact 
is amply illustrated by the early stall-plates 
at Windsor, but the modern crested helms 
surmountmg the stalls there were for a long 
time the scoff of students of heraldry owing 
to the absurd manner m which the crests 
were set athwart the fronting helms. It is 
pleasant to be able to add that the crests 
have lately been replaced almost throughout 

B Thomas Ballard, Esq. 

C Sir Henry Ingelose. 
of Loddon, 1451. 

Edmund Grey earl of Kent, 1442. 

PLATE XIV.— Examples of crests and mantlings. 

by a new and larger series, worthy of their The 

surroundings, and set upon the helms in Treatment 
, TT 1 1 or Crests 

the proper way. Under the same en- 
lightened administration the most recent 




Fig. 64. Crest etc. of Sir John Astley, from 
a MS. c. 1420. 

Stall-plates are enamelled creations of real 
artistic and heraldic excellence. 

The crest was, of old time, almost always 
something that could actually be set upon 
a helm, and such objects as naturally were 


Fig. 65. Crest of Edward prince of Wales, 
1376, of leather and stamped gesso, 
from his tomb at Canterbury. 

Fig. 66. Funeral litlni and wooden crest of 
George Brooke lord Cobham, ob. 1558, in 
Cobham church, Kent. 

The too large or too heavy were modelled in 
Treatment boiled leather, wood, or other light material : 
like the fine crest borne at the funeral of 
Edward prince of Wales, now over his 
tomb at Canterbury, which is a leopard 
standing upon a cap of estate and modelled 
in leather covered with stamped gesso 
(fig. 65) ; or the soldan's head of carved 
wood that surmounts the funeral helm of 
George lord Cobham, in Cobham church, 
Kent (fig. 66). 

Such impossible crests as the pictorial 
scenes and other absurdities granted by the 
kings-of-arms during the eighteenth and 
nineteenth centuries, and even back to 
Elizabethan daj^s, would not have been 
thought of at an earlier period, when 
heraldry was a living art. 

The degradation of the proper use of a 
crest, other than by those entitled to wear 
one, began as soon as the kmgs-of-arms 
presumed to grant armorial bearings by 
their bestowing crests upon impersonal 
corporate bodies like the London livery 
companies, such as the Tallow Chandlers 
(1456), Masons (1472), and Wax Chandlers 

Arms were borne by the mayor and 
commonalty of a city or town at least as 


fe « (h Treatment 
of Crests 

Fig. 67. Stall-plate of Humphrey duke of 
Buckingham as earl of Stafford, c. 1429. 

early as 1283 in the case of Chester, and of 
1305 in the case of Dover (or the Cinque 



of Crests 



Fig. 68. Stall-plate of Sir Thomas Burgh, 
c. 1483. 

Ports), but none presumed to use a crest 
until London did so on the making of a 

new seal in 1539, and no crest was The 
granted to a town before 1561. Treatment 

Before leaving crests a word must be 
said as to theu" comparative sizes. 

Fig. 69. Seal of Richard Nevill, with separate crests 
and supporters for his earldoms of Salisbury and 

Throughout the best period of heraldic 
art the crested helm and the shield in 
pictorial representations practically balance 


one another, but there is occasionally a 
tendency to diminish the shield, and so 
apparently to enlarge the crest. This may 
be seen, for example, in several of the early 
stall-plates at Windsor (figs, d']^ 68), which 
otherwise are admirable models as to the 
treatment of crests in general. They also 
show very clearly how easily and com- 
fortably the crests surmount the helms. 

A remarkable early English example of 
the use of two crests is furnished by a seal 
of Richard Nevill (1449-1471), the 'King- 
maker,' who was earl of Salisbury, and, in 
right of his wife, also earl of Warwick 
(fig. 69). This exhibits two helms above 
the multi-quartered shield, the one carry- 
ing the Beauchamp swan for the earldom 
of Warwick, the other the Montagu grifl&n 
for the earldom of Salisbury. 




Origin of Mantlings; Simple early forms; 
Colours of Mantlings; Medieval usage as to 
Colours of Mantlings. 

In actual use the helm seems often to have 
been covered behind by a hanging scarf or 
cloth of some kind, perhaps to temper the 
heat of the sun, like a modern puggaree. 
Heraldically this is represented by what is 
now called the mantling. 

At first this was a simple affair, worn 
puggaree-wise, but by degrees it was 
enlarged in representations until it ex- 
tended on either side beyond the helm, 
and was disposed in graceful twists and 
folds with dagged edges, which have been 
supposed to represent the cuts it was liable 
to receive during fighting (figs. 70, 71). 

The usual colour for the mantling, for a 
long time, has been red, and its lining of 
ermine or white fur, but there is ample 
precedence for a difference of treatment, as 
may be seen in that rich collection of 


Mantlmgs ancient heraldic art, the stall-plates at 

The earliest surviving plate, that of 
Ralph lord Bassett (K.G. 1368-90) has a 

^ i* -;<.■>, \ 


r'*^ ' 


- '" •^■■'^'- ■ -^ "■ 

^ -~ 

<>?- :;, 

- ' .^ 



X ' 

Fig. 70. Seal of William lord Hastings, c. 1461. 

short black mantling, to match the boar's 
head that forms his crest (fig. 72). A large 
group of plates set up in 1421 exhibits a 
considerable variety. Thus the plate of Sir 
Sanchet Dabrichecourt has a red mantling 
powdered with gold lozenges, a treatment 
suggested b}^ two bands of red similarly 
decorated which encircle the bush of 
feathers forming his crest (fig. 73). The 

mantling of William lord Latimer is of red Mantlings 
and silver stripes, and that of John lord 
Beaumont, like the field of his shield, is, 
together with the cap of estate, of blue 

Fig. 71. Seal of William de la Pole earl of 
Suffolk, 1415. 

powdered with gold fleurs-de-lis. Sir 
Walter Pavely has also a blue mantling. 
Sir William FitzWaryn's mantling is 
quarterly per fesse indented of red 
and ermine, like his shield of arms. 
The Captal de Buch, Raynald lord 
Cobham, Hugh lord Burnell (fig. ']'])y 
Hugh lord Bourchier (pi. xvi), and Sir 
Thomas Banastre have black mantlings, 


Fig. 72. Stall-plate of Ralph lord Basset, showing simple 
form of mantling. 






Fig. 73. Stall-plate of Sir Sanchet Dabriche- 
court, c. 1421. 

and John lord Bourchier and William 
lord Willoughby d'Eresb}^ (pi. xv) white 
mantlings lined with red. Sir Miles 


Mantlings Stapleton and the Soudan de la Trau have 
black mantlings lined with red. Several 
early mantlings, too, are formed entirely of 
silver feathers, with red, black, or other 
linings. These usually accompany a 
feathered crest, like Sir William Arundel's 
griffin (fig. 74), or the earl of Warwick's 
swan (fig. 75), or Sir Thomas Erping- 
ham's bush of feathers. Another curious 
variation, which is found on four early 
plates, has the colour of the mantling 
different on the two sides of the helm, 
such as red on one side, and blue or 
black on the other. In about a dozen 
plates between 1450 and 1470 the red, and 
in one case the blue, ground of a mantling 
is relieved by a trailing pattern in gold, 
sometimes in lines only, but more usually 
as leafwork or flowers. In the plate of 
Walter lord Hungerford (el. 142 1) the 
mantling on his banner-like plate is barred 
with red and ermine {see fig. 136), in 
allusion to the arms of his lordship of 
Hussey. Lastly, in the plate of Richard 
lord Rivers (el. 1450) the mantling is red, 
sown with gold trefoils, and lined with 
white, with gold tassels at the ends (fig. 76). 
This is derived from the crest, which is the 
upper part of a man brandishing a scimitar, 

and clad in a red tunic with standing collar Mantlings 
and large hanging sleeves, also sown with 















Fig. 74. Stall-plate of Sir William Arundel, 
c. 1421. 

trefoils. The sleeves are cleverh^ arranged 
in the plate, as if forming part of the 
K 145 


Fig. 75. Stall-plate of Richard Beauchamp earl 
of Warwick, after 1423. 

mantling, and are similarly dagged and 
lined and tasselled. On the stall-plate 


Fig. 76. Stall-plate of Richard WVdville lord Rivers, 
c. 1450. 

{c. 1483) of Francis viscount Lovel, the 
mantling is of purple sown with gold 
hanging locks. 




Crests within Crowns ; Nature and Treatment 
of Crowns ; Caps of Estate : Their possible 
origin and introduction into Heraldry; The 
Colour of Caps ; The Placing of Crests upon 
Caps; Wreaths or Torses; Their Colour; 
Crests and Mottoes ; Use of Crests by Bishops ; 
The Ensigning of Arms with Mitres, Cardinals' 
and Doctors' Hats, and Caps of Estate. 

The treatment of the crest varies. In the 
earhest examples it is set directly upon the 
mantled helm (fig. "]"] and pis. xiv a, 
and XVII b), to which it was actually 
attached by wires through holes on top. 
But from the first, large numbers of crests 
were fixed, or rose as it were, from within 
a crown or coronet encircling the helm, or 
stood upon a cap or hat of estate that 
surmounted it. (See figs. 65, 67, 72, 73, 
74, 75, and pis. XIII E and F, xvii a, xxi, 
XXII, XXVII A, etc.) 

The crown was merely ornamental, and 
had no reference to the digmt}' of the 


>wf ^, 

Crests and 
Caps of 

Estate, and 

Fig. -]-]. Stall-plate of Hugh lord Burnell, c. 1421. 

wearer, but was used alike heraldically by 
prince and peer, knight and esquire, and 
the same may be said of the cap of estate. 


Crests and Crowns were anciently formed of a 

v^owns, number of leaves or fleurons set uprip;ht 

Laps of 111 • -11 

Estate, and upon the band, sometimes with lesser 

Wreaths leaves or jewels between them ; the bands 

Fig. 78. Arms of St. Edmund from the tomb of Ed- 
mund duke of York, ob. 1402, at King's Langley. 



too were often jewelled. But in practice ^i^^^ns" 

only three (fie;. 78), or sometimes five, 9^° - of 

•'•11 1 1 1 Caps Oi ' 

prmcipal leaves are shown when the crown Estate and 

is drawn in profile (fig. 83). Wreaths 

Beyond the fact that the thing was a 
crown, there was no strict rule as to the 
design, which varied according to the taste 
of the artist. Two examples among the 
earl}^ stall-plates at Windsor, those of Hugh 
Stafl^ord lord Bourchier (fig. 79 and pi. xvi), 
and Richard lord Grey of Codnor (both 
c. 1421), illustrate this in a pretty way 
(fig. 80). In both cases the plate after 
being finished has been cut up, partly re- 
versed, and in part re-engraved ; not be- 
cause anything was wrong with the heraldry, 
but to make the crested helms face the other 
way. These have accordingly been turned 
over, but in cutting them afresh the en- 
graver has slightly varied the designs of 
the crests and of the crowns with which 
each is encircled, without however in any 
way altering their heraldic character. In 
the earliest existing plates the crested 
helms are all drawn turned towards the 
high altar, consequently those on the 
north side of the quire face heraldically 
towards the sinister. The two plates just 
noted, and at least one other, have been 

J transferred from one side of the quire to 

'^' the other. 

Estate, and ^"^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ instances of a crown 

Fig. 79. Crest from the reverse of the stall-plate of 

Hugh Stafford lord Bourchier. 


about a crest is on the seal of WilHam 

Montagu earl of Salisbury, 1337 (pi. xii). 

Crowns were not by any means always 

of gold or silver, and quite a number of 


pre-Tudor stall-plates have them enamelled Crests and 
red, and in two cases blue. P°^^"^' 

These heraldic crowns must not be con- Estate and 


Fig. 8o. Two forms of the same crest. From the 
stall-plate of Richard lord Grey of Codnor. 

founded with the coronets, as they are now 
called, worn of different patterns by peers 
and peeresses according to their degree ; 
some reference to these will be made later. 


Crests and The cap of estate is generally depicted 
Crowns, jj^ English heraldic art as a high crowned 

Estate! and conical hat or cap with flattened top, and 
Wreaths a broad brim lined with ermine. The 
brim is usually turned up high in front, 
but gradually lessens along the sides to- 
wards the back, where the brim extends 
horizontally to its full width. 

The cap of estate first appears, sur- 
mounted by his leopard crest, on the head 
of King Edward III in the great seal made 
for him in February 1339-40 on his as- 
sumption of the title of king of France. 
Whether the cap has any connexion with 
the assumption of the king's new title it is 
difficult to say, but its more common name 
of 'cap of maintenance' would acquire a 
significant meaning could such connexion 
be proved. It is however more probable 
that the cap was worn by the king for his 
dignity of duke of Normandy and of 
Aquitaine, and it was long the custom for 
representatives of those duchies to take 
part in coronation processions wearing 
robes and caps of estate. According to the 
Little Device for the Coronation of Henry 
VII, there were to ride before the King in 
the procession from the Tower *ij Squiers 
for the kinges bodie bearing in baudrick 



C. 1421. 

wise twoo mantells furred w*^ Ermyns, Crests and 
wearing twoo hattes of Estate of Crymsen frowns, 
clothe of golde beked on, beks turnyd upp Estate *^and 
behinde, and furred also w^ Ermyns in Wreaths 
reprecentacion of the kinges twoo duchesses 
of Gyen and Normandie.'* 

Although the cap may at first have been 
restricted to the king, it was certainly used 
by the sons of Edward III, and may be 
seen of like form and fashion upon the 
seals of Edward as prince of Wales (1343), 
of John of Gaunt as duke of Lancaster 
(1362) and of Edmund of Langley as duke 
of York (pi. xxi), and of Thomas of Wood- 
stock as duke of Gloucester in 1385. It 
was no doubt in each case given by per- 
sonal investiture by the Sovereign, but only 
to those who were made dukes. 

In heraldry, however, the cap of estate 
was used after 1350 by many who were 
not only dukes who had been invested with 
it, but by earls and barons who had not 
been so invested, and even by mere 
knights (pi. XIII f). 

It would be as rash to argue from this 
that such persons were all entitled to wear 
for dignity the cap of estate, as it would be 

* L. G. Wickham Legg, English Coronation Records 
(Westminster, 1901), 223. 

Crests and to insist that the equalh^ common use of a 
Crowns, crown round the base of a crest entitled 
Estate and ^^ery knight or baron on whose seal it 
Wreaths occurs to wear a coronet. 

The colour of the cap of estate was 
almost invariably red, with a lining of 
ermine, but in two of the early stall-plates 
it is blue. The crest is generally placed 
directly upon it, but representations of two- 
legged or four-legged creatures often stand 
upon the brim with their feet on either side 
of the flat-topped cap (figs. 112, 138). It 
is hardly necessary to say that the crested 
cap is always placed upon the helm, with 
the mantling issuing from under it. 

It is a common practice now-a-days, 
quite wrongl}^, to represent crests apart 
from the helm, and as standing upon a 
twisted bar, or wreath as it is called. A 
little research will show that this bar re- 
presents the twisting together of two or 
three differently coloured stuffs, and fixing 
the wreath so formed round the base of 
the crest to mask its junction with the top 
of a helm. Once invented it came into 
common use, and crests of all kinds were 
fixed within it. 

When seen sideways the rounded top of 
the helm causes the crest to appear as if 


standing upon the wreath, and this has no Crests and 
doubt given rise to the present malpractice. ^°^"^' 

The Rev. C. Boutell in his smaller Estate! and 
English Heraldry quotes the Hastings brass Wreaths 
at Elsing, of the year 1347, as the earliest 
instance of a wreath about a crest (fig. 81). 

Fig. 81. Helm with crest and wreath from 
the Hastings brass at Elsing, 1347. 

But this brass is probably French, and in 
English work the wreath does not come 
into being much before the close of the 
fourteenth century, and was not regularly 
used until about 1450. 

The wreath or torse, as it was also called, 
from being a twist, was usually of two 
colours, derived from the principal metal 
and colour of the arms ; but the fifteenth 
century stall-plates show many variations 
from this rule. Thus Lewis lord Bourchier 
{c. 1421) has a torse of blue, gold, and 


Crests and black, and John earl of Tankerville 
Crowns, (^^ 1 421) one of green, red, and white. 

Estate and J^^^ ^^^'^ Bourchier (c 1421) and Henry 
Wreaths lord Bourchier (c. 1452) both have black 
and green torses. Richard Wydville lord 
Rivers {c. 1450) has the crest issuing from 
a green torse, crested with a crown of holly 
leaves. Thomas lord Stanley {c. 1459) 
has a torse of gold and blue with red 
spots or jewels between, and Sir William 
Chamberlayne {c. 1461) a red and blue 

The modern practice is that the twists 
of a torse shall be only six in number; 
but in old heraldry there was no such rule, 
and any number from four may be found, 
whatever would look best. In the Har- 
sick brass (fig. 82) there are eleven twists. 
Crests occasionally had mottoes or 
'words' associated with them, quite apart 
from the ordinary 'work' or 'reason' of 
the family or individual. Thus the ermine 
bush of feathers that formed the crest of 
Sir Simon Felbrigge is accompanied on his 
stall-plate {c. 1421) by a scroll lettered 
(SaU5 mucr (fig. 83), and on that of John 
lord Scrope (el. 1461) the crest, which is 
likewise a bush of feathers, has above it the 
'reason' autrc r|5=cllc» Two of the fine 


Fig. 82. Helm with crest and torse and 
simple form of mantling, from the Har- 
sick brass at Southacre, 1384. 

Crests and 
Caps of 

Estate, and 



Fig. 83. Stall-plate of Sir Simon Felbrigge, 
c. 1421. 

seals of Richard Nevill earl of Salisbur}^ 
(1428-60) have behind his demi-griffin 

Richard Nevill earl of Salisbury, 142S-60. 

John Talbot earl of Shrewsbury, 1445. 

PLATE XVII.— Crests with mottoes. 

crest a scroll lettered apparently ma [or bo] Crests and 
))lcficr (pi. XVII A, and xxii b) and the ^'"^w"^' 
seal of John Talbot earl of Shrewsbury, Estate, and 
as marshal of France (1445), has a scroll Wreaths 
with his 'word' issuing from the mouth 
of his lion crest (pi. xvii b). 

From what has been said above as to 
the ancient association of helm and crest, 
it follows that the present fashion of re- 
presenting the crest by itself, apart from 
the helm to which it was always attached, 
is entirely wrong. It at once renders the 
crest meaningless : in appearance it forth- 
with becomes insignificant ; and attempts 
to treat it artistically generally end in 

Let crests be shown as crests, properly 
set upon practicable helms, and with 
competent mantlings treated with all the 
freedom that they are capable of. 

It may here be noted that it has not been 
customary, nor is it logically correct, for 
ladies and other non-combatant persons, 
such as the ministers of the Church, to use 
crests ; arms they have ever been allowed 
to bear. Examples, however, of the breach 
of the rule as to crests even by bishops 
are afforded by several of their privy seals. 
Thus Henry le Despenser bishop of 
L 161 

Crests and Norwich (1370-1406) has his differenced 

Crowns, shield of arms surmounted by a mantled 

Estate and helm upon which a mitre, with a griffin's 

Wreaths head and wings issuing therefrom, is placed 

as a crest (fig. 84) ; and Alexander Nevill 

archbishop of York (1374) shows his shield 

Fig. 84. Privy seal of Henry le Despenser 
bishop of Norwich, 13 70-1 406. 

hanging below a crowned helm surmounted 
by the bull's head crest of his house and 
supported by two griffins. 

William Courtenay, as archbishop of 
Canterbury (1381-96), similarly displays a 
shield of his arms, ensigned by a helm sur- 
mounted by a cap of estate with a dolphin 
on top. A helm crested with a lovely 
bunch of columbines is also carved with 
his arms above the tomb of James Goldwell 


bishop of Norwich {oh. 1498-9) in his Crests and 
cathedral church. ^'"°^^'"^; 

Robert Nevill on his privy seal as bishop Estate and 
of Durham (1438-57) surmounts his shield Wreaths 
with a beautiful labelled mitre, from which 
issues a bull's head with a scroll lettered 

cu grace afftc. 

Many of the bishops of Durham, on 
their great seals in chancery, in virtue of 
their secular palatinate jurisdiction, are 
represented as riding in complete armour 
with helms on their heads. The first to 
be so represented was Thomas Hatfield 
(1345) who wears a large crowned helm 
surmounted by a mitre, from which issues 
a bush of feathers. John Fordham (1381) 
also surmounts his crowned helm with a 
mitre, on which is perched a bird. Walter 
Skirlaw (1388) and Thomas Langley (1406) 
set within the crowns crests without mitres ; 
in one case the bust of an angel, in the 
other a bush of feathers. Robert Nevill 
(1438) surmounts his crowned helm with 
a mitre, from which issues a bull's head, as 
on his privy seal above noted. Cuthbert 
Tunstall (1530) has a mitre alone upon his 

The usual practice in displayinga bishop's 
arms has been, for a long time, to ensign 


Crests and them Simply with his own official headgear 

Crowns, jj^ ^l^g shape of a mitre, and the same 

Estate and custom prevailed with regard to the arms 

Wreaths of mitred abbots and priors. Robert 

Nevill's privy seal is an early example. 

Cardinals ensigned their shields with the 
tasselled hat of their order, as may be seen 
on the seal-of-arms of Henry Beaufort 
bishop of Winchester (1405), and in a 
carving of his arms in Southwark cathedral 
church. A cardinal's hat is displayed, with 
his rebus and sundry ro^^al badges, on the 
arch about the cenotaph of John Morton 
archbishop of Canterbury and cardinal in 
the undercroft of his cathedral church. 

Doctors also sometimes surmounted their 
arms with the round cap pertaining to their 

On the monument at St. Albans of 
Humphrey duke of Gloucester (ob. 1446) 
his arms are ensigned alternately by his 
mantled and crested helm, and by a large 
cap of estate encircled by a crown or coro- 
net. Jasper duke of Bedford (1485) on his 
seal likewise surmounts his arms with a 
cap of estate encircled by a delicate crown. 

There is not any necessity at the present 
day to represent any crown or coronet with 
the cap of estate within it. 




Definition of a Badge; Difference between 
Crests and Badges; Examples of Badges ; The 
Ostrich-Feather Badge; The White Hart, etc.; 
Introduction of Badges into Heraldry; Their 
Prevalence; Allusive Badges; Badges of obscure 
Origin; Knots and Badges; The Rebus 

Closely allied with crests, but borne and 
used in an entirely different way, are the 
devices called badges. 

The whole history of these is in itself 
of great interest, and the facility with which 
they lend themselves to artistic heraldic 
decoration renders badges of peculiar value. 

A badge is, properly speaking, any dis- 
tinctive device, emblem, or figure, assumed 
as the mark or cognisance of an individual 
or family : and it should be borne alone, 
without anyshield,torse, or other accessory. 
But a badge may be and often was, like a 
crest, accompanied by a word, reason, 
or motto. There is however this im- 
portant difference between a crest and a 

1 6s 

The use of badge, that the crest was pre-eminently the 

Badges, personal device of its owner, while his 
rLnots, and , , • , , , j u i • 

the Rebus badge might also be used by his servants 

and retainers. Such a use of the badge 

still survives in the 'crest' on the buttons 

of liveried servants. 

The most famous and best known badge 
is that of the three ostrich feathers en- 
circled by a crown or coronet borne by the 
Prince of Wales. It was probably intro- 
duced by Queen Philippa, who is known 
to have possessed plate ornamented with 
*a black scocheon of ostrich feathers,' 
perhaps allusive of the Comte of Ostrevant, 
the appanage of the eldest sons of the 
house of Hainault. A single ostrich 
feather, alone or stuck in a scroll, occurs 
after 1343 in several seals of Edward 
prince of Wales, and on his tomb at 
Canterbury the shield of his own arms 
alternates with his mother's black shield 
with three silver ostrich feathers, each trans- 
fixing a scroll with the word icf) blCHC ; 
over the shield is likewise a scroll in- 
scribed with the same words (fig. 85). 
John of Gaunt duke of Lancaster is said 
to have borne an ostrich feather powdered 
with ermine tails, and Thomas of Wood- 
stock duke of Gloucester, the youngest 


of Queen Philippa's sons, bore the feathers The use of 
with a strap (which some have regarded as t>adges, 
a Garter) extended along the quill (fig. 86). ^.j^g Rebus 
The Queen's great-grandson, Richard duke 
of York and earl of March (1436), bore 
the feather with a chain similarly placed ; 

Fig. 85. Shield with ostrich-feather badge 
from the tomb of Edward Prince of 
Wales {ob. 1376) at Canterbury. 

perhaps Edmund of Langley, his grand- 
father, had done the same. Henry of 
Lancaster, the son of John of Gaunt, on his 
seal as earl of Derby in 1385 (pi. xxiv c) 
and on that as duke of Hereford in 1399, 
has an ostrich feather stuck in the end of a 
scroll which is entwined about the feather 
and inscribed with the significant word 
)^^DUtlcrCt)nC, and the same word is re- 


The use of 

Knots, and 
the Rebus 

peated many times on his tomb as King 
Henry IV at Canterbury. 

Another notable badge is the couched 
white hart of King Richard II, with which 
may be named the white hind borne by his 

Fig. 86. Seal of Thomas of Woodstock duke 
of Gloucester with ostrich feather and 
Bohun swan badges. 

kinsman, Thomas Holand earl of Kent 

(pi. XVIII b). 

The fetterlock-and-falcon (fig. 87) and 
the white rose of the house of York, the 
white lion of the earls of March, the ra3^ed 
rose of Edward IV, and the silver boar of 
Richard III, are of course well-known 

badges ; as well as the red and the red and The use of 
white roses, the crowned fleur-de-lis, and Badges, 
the Beaufort portcullis, used by the Tudor ^j^^ Rebus 
kings (fig. 88). 

Fig. 87. Fetterlock-and-falcon badge of 
the house of York, from Henry VII's 
chapel at Westminster. 

When badges first came into use in this 
country is uncertain, but after the middle 
of the fourteenth century they abound. 
They are foreshadowed by the free treat- 


The use of ment of earlier decorative heraldry, such 

Badges, ^g ^j^g little leopards on the footgear and 

the Rebus piUows of King Henry Ill's gilt-latten 

effigy at Westminster, and the plate with 



f'iG. 88. Crowned rose and portculHs from King's 
college chapel at Cambridge. 

its lozengy diaper of leopards on which it 
lies ; also the lozeng}^ diaper of castles 
and lions which covers the metal plate 
whereon lies the effigy of Queen Eleanor 
of Castile. 


Many badges, too, originated in devices The use of 
borrowed from various sources and arranged Badges, 
about the shield on seals, as in figs. 89 and ^j^^ Rebus 

Fig. 89. Seal of Robert de Clifford, with 
arms surrounded by rings in allusion to 
his mother Isabel Vipont. 

«# '•'4/' ^^*-^.'^'*: £■ ' . 

Fig. 90. Seal of Robert de Toni as 
CHEVALER AU ciNG with the arms en- 
circled by swans and talbots. 


The use of 

Knots, and 
the Rebus 

90, which are only two out of a number 
of such appended to the Barons' Letter. 

The famous white swan badge of the 
Bohuns (fig. 91) is found perched upon the 
shield in the seal of Humphrey Bohun earl 
of Hereford and Essex, 1298 (pi. xix b). 

Fig. 9] 

Seal of Oliver Bohun with swans 
about the shield. 

Later on its neck was encircled by a crown 
for a collar, with a chain attached, and in 
this form it appears on the seals of Thomas 
of Woodstock, who married Eleanor Bohun 
(fig. 86), and on that lady's brass at West- 
minster. It was also borne by the sons and 
descendants of King Henry IV by his wife 
Mary Bohun. 

The gilt-latten effigies of Richard II 
(fig. 92) and Anne of Bohemia have their 
dresses pounced all over with badges, such 

as the white hart, the sun-burst, and the The use of 

broom sprigs on that of the king, and the Badges, 

Knots, and 
the Rebus 

Fig. 92. Gilt-latten effigy at Westminster of King 
Richard II, pounced with badges, etc. 

The use of ostrich and a peculiar knot on that of the 
Badges, queen. In 1380 Edmund Mortimer earl of 

the Rebus March left a bequest of 'our large bed 
of black satin embroidered with white lions 
and gold roses, with scocheons of the arms 
of Mortimer and Ulster,' and in 1385 
Joan princess of Wales bequeathed to 
her son the King (Richard II) 'my new 
bed of red velvet embroidered with ostrich 
feathers and leopards' heads of gold 
with boughs and leaves issuing from 
their mouths.' In 1397, Sir Ralph 
Hastmgs, whose arms were a red maunch 
or sleeve on a gold ground, and his crest 
a bull's head, left bequests of a silver bason 
and laver 'stamped with a bull's head 
{cum capite tauri), a vestment of red-cloth 
of gold with orfreys before and behind 
worked with maunches {cu7n maunches) and 
with the colours of mine arms,' and six 
salts stamped with maunches. In 1388 
John of Gaunt duke of Lancaster men- 
tions in his will 'my great bed of cloth of 
gold, the field powdered with roses of gold 
set upon pipes of gold, and in each pipe 
two white ostrich feathers,' also 'my new 
vestment of cloth of gold, the field red 
worked with gold falcons.' Two falcons 
holding hanging locks in their beaks are also 


shown on one of the duke's seals (pi. xxi a). The use of 
In 1400 Thomas Beauchamp earl of War- Badges, 
wick left a bed of silk embroidered with ^p,g Rebu*; 
' bears of mine arms ' ; and in 141 5 John lord 
le Scrope mentions in his will documents 
sealed cum signato meo de Crabb, and in a 
codicil made in 1453 he bequeaths 'j fayre 
pile of coppis conteyning xij coppis of gilt, 
with crabbis in ye myddes, and two 
coveryngis to thame with crabb.' In the 
north of England a crab is often called a 
scrap, whence its assumption by the Scropes. 
Such examples as the foregoing could be 
multiplied indefinitely, but they will suffice 
to show the prevalence of badges and the 
many ways in which they were used. 
They of course abounded on seals as well 
as on monuments of all kinds, and in con- 
junction with architecture. Under this last 
head may be quoted such examples as the 
arches in Wingfield church, Suffolk (fig. 93), 
studded with leopards' heads, wings, and 
Stafford knots, commemorative of Michael 
de la Pole earl of Suffolk (ob. 141 5) and 
his wife Katharine Stafford ; the porch and 
other parts of Lavenham church, displaying 
the boars and molets of John de Vere earl 
of Oxford ; bishop Courtenay's chimney- 
piece in the bishop's palace at Exeter 


Fig. 93. Piers and arches in Wingfield church, Suffolk, with 
badges of Michael de la Pole earl of Suffolk (ob. 141 5) and 
his wife Katharine Stafford. 


< (L) 


i W 





a c3 





fW7'^' ^ 

Fig. 96. The gatehouse of Christ's College, Cambridge. 

Fig. 97. Kfoir/.e door with badges of York and Beaufort 
from the Lady chapel of Westminster abbey church. 

(fig. 94) ; and the great displays of Tudor The use of 
badges on the deanery gateway at Peter- badges, 
1 1 /r \ 1 ' 1 r^L • ' Knots, and 

borough (ng. 95), the gatehouses at Lhrist s (.j-jg Rebus 

(fig. 96) and St. John's Colleges (fig. 172) at 
Cambridge, and the noble chapel of King's 
College. Special mention must also be 

Fig. 98. Signet with 
badge and crested 
helm of Lewis lord 
Bourchier, 1420. 

Fig. 99. Seal of Hugh 
de Veer, with boar 
badge and two wivers 
as supporters. From 
the Barons' Letter. 

made of the magnificent bronze doors of 
Henry VII's chapel at Westminster, than 
which no more beautiful example of the use 
of badges for decorative purposes could 
possibly be found (fig. 97). 

The sources of badges were various. As 
a matter of fact a man's badge was often 
the same device as his crest, like the 


The use of Courtenay dolphin, or the boar of the 

Badges, Veres, or the sickle of the Hungerfords. 
Knots, and ^ . i i j i • i r 

the Rebus sometimes the badge was derived from a 

part of the arms, such as the leopards' 

heads and the wings of the de la Poles, the 

water-bougets of the Bourchiers (fig. 98), 

the silver molet of the Veres (fig. 99), and 

Fig. 100. Signet of Fig. ioi. Signet with 

William Phelip flote badge and 

lord Bardolf, c. 1410, word of Sir William 

with eagle badge de- Oldhalle in 1457. 
rived from his arms. 

the Phelip eagle (fig. 100). If by chance 
a badge could have any punning or allusive 
meaning it was the more popular, and it 
then often served as a rebus. The boar 
{verve) of the Veres (fig. 99), the crab or 
scrap of the Scropes, the pike or luce of 
the Lucys, the long swords of Longespee 
(pi. XIX a), the gray or badger of Richard 
lord Grey of Codnor (fig. 102), and the 
wood-stock or tree stump of Thomas duke 
of Gloucester, who was born at Wood- 
stock, are all good examples of a practice 

that should be followed whenever possible, The use of 
even in these degenerate days. Badges, 

r> • 1 1 r 1 L J Knots, and 

rJut in a large number or cases the badge ^\^^ Rebus 

Fig. 102. Seal with badge (a gray or badger) 
of Richard lord Grey of Codnor, 1392. 

Fig. 103. Seal of Thomas lord Stanley as earl 
of Derby and seneschal of Macclesfield, 
1485, with the eagle's claw badge of Stanley 
and the legs of the Isle of Man. 


The use of has a different and often quite obscure 

Badges, origin, like the Bohun swan, the Percy 
Knots, and i • i i r> i i 

the Rebus crescent and swivel, the rJeauchamp bear 

Fig. 104. Daisy plant {marguerite)^ badge of 
the Lady Margaret Beaufort, from Henry 
VII's chapel at Westminster. 

and ragged staff, the Lovel hanging-lock, 
the Zouch eagle and crooked billet, and the 
Berkeley mermaid. 

A few families, e.g. the StafFords (fig. 
105), the Bourchiers, and the Wakes, used 
as a badge some special form of knot, and 


attention has already been called to the The use of 

Knots, and 
the Rebus 

pecuhar knots pounced upon the effigy of Badges, 
^ r r oy Knots, and 

Fig. 105. Part of the brass at Exeter of canon 
Langeton, kinsman of Edward Stafford bishop of 
Exeter, 141 3, in cope with an orphrey of X's and 
Stafford knots. 

Queen Anne of Bohemia. Interesting 
examples of the Bourchier knot may be 
seen on the tomb of archbishop Thomas 


The use of 

Knots, and 
the Rebus 

Fig. io6. Elbow-piece and Bourchier knot, from 
the brass of Sir Humphrey Bourchier, ob. 
1471, in Westminster abbey church. 

Bourchier at Canterbuiy, and on the brass 
of Sir Humphrey Bourchier at Westminster 

Fig. 107. Alabaster tomb and effigy of Edward Stafford 
earl of Wiltshire, ob. 1498, in Lowick church, Northamp- 

The use of 

Knots, and 
the Rebus 

(io6),and a good instance of the application 
of the knot is afforded by the seal of Joan 
Stafford countess of Kent and lady of 
Wake, who encircles her impaled shield 
with a cordon of Stafford knots (pl.xviii d). 
On the tomb at Lowick (Northants) of 

Fig. io8. Rebus of 
abbot Robert Kirk- 
ton, from the Deanery 
Gate at Peterborough. 

Fig. 109. Rebus of 
Thomas Becking- 
ton bishop of Bath 
and Wells, 1477. 

Edward Stafford earl of Wiltshire, oh. 1498, 
the shields are encircled with cordons of 
Stafford knots with another Stafford badge, 
the nave of a wheel, alternating with the 
knots (fig. 107). On the canopy of the tomb 
at Little Easton in Essex of Henry Bour- 
chier earl of Essex {ob. 1483) and his wife 
Isabel, sister of Richard duke of York, is a 
badge formed by placing a Bourchier knot 
within a fetterlock of York. 

Mention has been made above of the The use of 

rebus. This was invariably a badge or badges, 
, . P . -^ , Knots, and 

device torming a pun upon a man s sur- ^^^ Rebus 

name, and at one time was exceedingly 

popular. It no doubt originated in the 

' '1 




Fig. iio. Rebus of John IsHp abbot of 
Wesminster, from his chantry chapel. 

canting or allusive heraldry of earlier 
days, like the boars' heads of the Swyn- 
burnes, the trumpets of the Trumpingtons, 
the hammers (Fr. 7nartel) of the Martels, 
oi the scallop shells of the Scales. The ox 
crossing a ford in the arms of Oxford, and 
the Ca7n and its great bridge in the arms of 
Cambridge are also kindred examples. A 
large number of rebuses on names ending 


tie. III. Oriel window in the Deanery at Wells with badge 
of King Edward IV, and rebus of Dean Gunthorpe. 

in 'ton' are based upon a tun or barrel, The use of 

like the liip on a to7i of Robert Lupton Badges, 

r 77 11 Knots, and 

provost of hton 1503-4, or the large ^^^ Rebus 

church {kirk) and ton of abbot Kirkton on 

Fig. 112. Arms and rebus of Sir John Pechey, 
ob. 1522, from painted glass in Lullingstone 
church, Kent. 

the deanery gate at Peterborough (fig. 108), 
or the beacon rising from a ton of bishop 
Thomas Beckington at Wells (fig. 109). 
The gold wells of bishop Goldwell and the 
harts lying in water of bishop Walter Lyhart 


The use of in their cathedral church at Norwich are well 

Badges, known, as are probably the eye and the slip 
Knots, and c \ • \ c ' i • i 

the Rebus ^^ ^ ^^"^^ which form, together with a man 

falling from a tree (I slip !), the rebuses of 
abbot Islip at Westminster (fig. no). An 
o;\^,the letter N, and a bridge^ make the rebus 
of canon John Oxenbridge in his chantry 
chapel at Windsor, while an eagle and an 
ox with \\t on his side gives the name of 
prior John Oxney at Christchurch, Canter- 
bury. Two large hares with a spring or zvell 
rising between them crouch at the feet of 
bishop Harewell's effigy at Wells ; and dean 
Gunthorpe's oriel window in the deanery 
there is decorated with guns (fig. in). Sir 
John Pechey's arms {azure a lion ermine with 
a forked tail and a gold crozv7t), in a window 
in Lullingstone church, Kent, are encircled 
by a wreath of peach-branches, with peaches 
charged with the letter C for the final 
S3dlable of his name (fig. 112). 

Here again it is needless to multiply 
examples of rebuses, but the fun to be got 
out of them is ample justification for urging 
their adoption and use in connexion with 
decorative heraldry.* 

* The Rev. E. E. Dorling has taken for his rebus 
a little door (doorHng !) with the hinges ending in 
E's, and the author of this book might fitly content 
himself with the anchor of Hope ! 




The probable Origin of Supporters; Quasi- 
Supporters ; True Supporters : their Introduc- 
tion ; Supporters of Crested Hehns ; Pairs of 
Supporters; Dissimilar Supporters ; The use of 
Supporters by Ladies ; Other ways of supporting 

The misuse of crests to which reference 
has been made unfortunate!}^ does not 
stand alone, for modern artists are quite as 
much at fault with regard to the proper 
treatment of supporters. 

There can be little doubt that these 
charming adjuncts to heraldic compositions 
originated with the seal engravers, in their 
desire to fill up the vacant space in a round 
seal between the shield and its surrounding 
margin. In the oldest examples this was 
done b}^ adding scrollwork or leafage, but 
in the seal of Humphrey Bohun earl of 
Hereford, 1220, the large shield of his 
arms is flanked by two smaller shields of 
his other earldom of Essex. The same 
N 193 

Supporters treatment occurs in the seal of his grand- 
son, another Humphrey Bohun earl of 
Hereford and Essex, 1298-13 22 (pi. 
XIX b). Henr}^ de Laci (1257) has the 
side spaces filled by two small wivers, and 
in the seal of Stephen Longespee (ob. 1260) 
the shield is flanked by two long swords 
(pi. XIX a). Gilbert of Clare earl of 
Gloucester (1262) has his shield hung on 
a peg and accompanied by two lions back 
to back, while in the seal of Edmund earl 
of Cornwall (1272) and son of Richard king 
of the Romans the shield is held up in 
the beak of an imperial eagle splayed or 
spread out behind it. Thomas earl of 
Lancaster (1296) on both his larger and 
his lesser seals has the shield flanked by 
two wivers, as has also his brother Henry 
of Lancaster (1298) (fig. 60). 

Sometimes the shield is hung about the 
neck of a bird (fig. 113), or about a beast, 
as in the seal of Alan la Souche, which 
likewise has the shield surrounded by a 
number of lions (fig. 114). 

During the first half of the fourteenth 
century little definite progress was made 
towards true supporters. Shields, whether 
hung from pegs or upon trees, or sur- 
mounted by crested helms, still continued 


to be flanked by quasi-supporters, which of Supporters 
course varied much in character. 

Pairs of wivers, dragons, and hons, 
usually back to back, the better to fit the 
space, and sometimes with entwined tails, 
were common early in the century, and 

Fig. 113. Seal of John de Moun with the shield 
slung from an eagle and flanked by two 
leopards. From the Barons' Letter. 

shields with splayed eagles behind may not 
infrequently be found (figs. 115, 116). 
What may be regarded as true supporters 
appear on the lesser seal (pi. xii a) of 
William Montagu earl of Salisbury, circa 
1337, wherein two griffins seem to be 
holding up the shield, but it is not until 
well on in the second half of the fourteenth 
century that further definite instances be- 
come fairly common. 

Supporters Interesting transitional usages may also 
be found. Thus on a seal (c. 1350) of 
Margaret Graunson, two wivers uphold by 
their beaks the upper corners of a shield of 
her husband's arms, while a third wiver 

Fig. 114. Seal of Alan la Souche in 1301, 

similarly grips the point. Guy de Brj^en 
{c. 1350) has his shield hung upon a tree 
and supported at the corners by two wivers 
holding it by their beaks. Another lad}', 
Joan FitzAlan, who married in 1362 
Humphrey Bohun earl of Hereford, has 
an impaled shield of their arms held up m 
their beaks by two Bohun swans ; and 
another pair of swans perform the same 
office in a FitzWarin seal used in 1398-9 
(pi. XX a). 

A curious variant from the ordinarj^ Supporters 
flanking pair of beasts occurs on the seal 

Fig. 115. Seal of John Beauchamp of Hacche, 
with shield on breast of an eagle. 

Fig, 1 16. Seal of William de Ferrers with shield 
upon an eagle with two heads. 

of Edmund Mortimer earl of March 
(1360-81), where the arms are accompanied 


Supporters by a pair of lions with their heads covered 
by large helms with the earl's crest, a bush 
of feathers rising from a crown. A similar 
treatment is to be seen on a seal of John 
la Warre, as used in 1390 (pi. xx d). 

Analogous cases will be noted on the 
seal of Sir Robert de Marni (1366) (fig. 
64) whose shield hangs from a tree and is 
flanked by two fronting helms with tall 
pairs of wings rising from caps of estate as 
crests ; also in a seal of Sir Bartholomew 
Burghersh (1397-8) which has the shield 
flanked by two helms crested with tall 
soldans' heads, and surmounted by what 
is probably his badge, a swan with a lady's 
head (pi. xx c). A seal of Sir Roger 
Scales (1369-86) has his seal flanked by 
two long-necked wivers, and hung by a 
strap from another wiver which has twisted 
itself into the shape of the letter S, and 
perched itself on the upper edge of the 

Another case of true supporters is 
afforded by a seal of Peter de Mauley in 
1379-80, where a shield surmounted by a 
fierce dragon (perhaps a badge) is upheld 
by small lions (pi. xx b). Other supporters 
of shields only may be seen on seals of 
Thomas Beauchamp earl of Warwick (1369) 


John la Warre, in 1390. 

PLATE XX.— Shields with supporters. 

John of Gaunt -duke of Lancaster, 1362. 

Edmund of Langley duke of York, 1385. 

PLATE XXI. — Shields accompanied by Badges. 

where they are bears ; and of Roger Mor- Supporters 
timer earl of March and Ulster (1381) 
where they are lions, as is also the case in 
a seal of John Batour used in 1418-19. 
In each of these cases the shield is hung 
upon a tree. 

In heraldic representations where the 
shield of arms is surmounted by a helm 
and crest, there is the same hesitation in 
arriving at true supporters ; the space at 
the sides being filled at first by a badge 
or such device. Thus John of Gaunt 
duke of Lancaster (in 1362) introduced a 
pair of eagles with hanging locks in 
their beaks, and his brother Edmund of 
Langley duke of York (in 1385) followed 
suit with a couple of falcons having in their 
beaks scrolls with scriptures (pi. xxi). 
John Nevill lord of Raby and seneschal of 
Bordeaux (1378) flanked his arms, etc. with 
two letters 6, while his kinsmen, Sir William 
Nevill, used in 1390 a seal with his arms 
and crested helm accompanied by two large 

The fine seal of Thomas lord Despenser 
(before 1397) has on either side of his 
shield and crested helm a tree from which 
hangs a lozenge of arms : the one bearing 
the three cheverons of Clare, for his lordship 


Supporters of Glamorgan ; the other the forked- 
tailed lion of the barony of Burghersh 
which came to him through his mother 
(pi. XXII a). Richard Nevill earl of Salis- 
bury in 1429 similarly places two angels 
bearing shields : one with the arms of 
Nevill, the other with the lions of Longespee 
in virtue of his earldom of Salisbury (pi. 
XXII b). Henry of Lancaster (afterwards 
King Henry IV) as earl of Derby, etc., 
(c. 1385) flanks his arms and crested helm 
with two ostrich feathers entwined with a 
scroll with the scripture SUUDCrCtJltC (pi. 
XXIV c), and others of the royal house 
similarly used ostrich feathers of other 
forms. Edward V as prince of Wales in 
1471 flanked his arms with two scrolled 
ostrich feathers standing on large York 
roses. Thomas duke of Exeter (1416) 
placed a swan on either side of his armorial 
achievement, and William lord Lovel and 
Holand (1423) a hanging lock (pi. xxiii a) ; 
while Sir John Pelham (<:. 1430) flanked 
his crest with his buckle badge (pi. xxiii b). 
On the fine seal of Thomas lord Roos of 
Hamlake or Helmsley (1431-64) his pea- 
cock crest is flanked by two large flowering 
plants, perhaps hemlocks (pi. xxiii e). 
By the third quarter of the fourteenth 

Thomas lord Despenser, before 1397. 

Richard Nevill earl of Salisbury, 1429. 

PLATE XXII.— Quasi-supporters. 

centuiy the combination of supporters with Supporters 
shields of arms surmounted by crested 

Fig. 117. Seal of Edmund Mortimer earl of 
March and Ulster, 1400, with rampant 
leopard supporters. 

Fig. 118. Seal of Sir William Windsor, 1381, 
with eagle supporters. 


Supporters helms had become fully established, and 
henceforth the number of beautiful and 
instructive examples is so great that it is 
unnecessary to do more than illustrate a 
typical series (figs. 117-121). It will be 



Fig. 119. Seal of William de la Pole duke 
of Suffolk, 1448. 

seen from these that in seals the majority 
of the supporters are upholding the heavy 
helm and its crest, and not the shield that 
hangs below it ; probably on account of the 
nature of the design. The supporters, too, 
usually form pairs, and it goes without say- 
ing that every variet}^ of creature is made to 
serve. Sometimes they are composed of 
badges, like the falcons on crooked billets 

used by William lord Zouch (pi. xxiv a), Supporters 
or the similar birds with 'words' coupled 
with oak leaves and the letter t that appear 

Fig. 1 20. Seal of John Nevill lord Montagu, 

on a seal of Sir John FalstafF used in 1456 
(pi. XXIV b). William lord Botraux, in a 
seal used in 1426, has his armorial ensigns 
flanked by two buttresses (Fr. botreaux) ; 
while John lord Talbot and Furnival (1406) 
has two talbots (fig. 122), and George duke 


Supporters of Clarence (1463) the black bulls of Clare 

(fig- 123). 

Where the supporters differ it is usually 

Fig. 121. Seal of William lord Hastings, 
c. 1461. 

the case that they represent more than one 
dignity. Thus on one of his seals (fig. 124) 
Richard Beauchamp earl of Warwick (1401) 
used as such for supporters two muzzled 
bears hugging ragged staves, but on a later 

seal (1421) as earl of Warwick and of Albe- Supporters 
marie the supporters are a bear and a griffin 
(fig. 125). So too his successor in the title 
of earl of Warwick, Richard Nevill, on a fine 

Fig. 122. Seal of John lord Talbot and 
Furnival, 1406. 

seal c. 145 1-2 has two muzzled bears for 
supporters, but on a later seal c. 1460 as earl 
of Warwick and Salisbury his supporters 
are a Warwick bear and a Montagu griffin 
(fig. 69). Edmund Beaufort duke of 
Somerset on his seal for the town of Bayeux 
c. 1445 (fig. 126) has on one side his own 
eagle supporter, and on the other a spotted 
dog-like beast with a crown about his eck ; 


Supporters and Richard duke of York and earl of 
March on his seal as governor of France and 
Normandy in 1436 has for supporters the 
York falcon and the white lion of March. 
On the stall-plate of John Beaufort duke of 
Somerset and earl of Kendal his arms are 
supported by a Somerset crowned eagle and 
a mysterious beast called a yale,* behind 
each of which stands an ostrich feather with 
the quill gobony of blue and silver. 

It is not necessary here to cite the various 
supporters borne by the Kings of England, 
but it may suffice to point out that since 
the union of the crowns of England and 
Scotland one of the royal supporters has 
always been a lion for England and the 
other a unicorn for Scotland. 

In seals of married ladies in which their 
arms are accompanied by supporters, one 
often represents the husband and the other 
the lady's famil}^. 

Thus Joan Holand, daughter of Thomas 
earl of Kent, and wife of Edmund of Lang- 
ley duke of York, has (after 1393) her 

* For a full account of the yale or eale see papers 
in The Archo'ological Journal, Ixviii, 173 199. The 
adoption of the beast by the duke of Somerset has 
not yet been explained, but it may be for his earl- 
dom of Kendal and partly be a rebus (Kend-eale). 


Fig. 123. Seal of George duke of Clarence ard lord of 
Richmond, 1462, with black bulls of Clare supporting 
his crested helm. 

Supporters husband's half of her impaled shield 
supported by the falcon of York, and her 
own half by her father's hind with its 
Cecily Nevill, the wife of 

crown collar. 

Fig. 124. Seal of Richard Beauchamp earl 
of Warwick, 1401. 

Richard duke of York and earl of March, 
and mother of King Edward IV, has the 
shield on her fine seal ensigned by a falcon 
of York and supported by a stag with crown 
collar and chain and by a lion of March 
(fig. 127). The even more splendid seal of 
Elizabeth Wydville, queen consort of King 
Edward IV, shows as her supporters the 

PLATE XXV. — Arms with crown and supporters of Elizabeth 
Wydville, queen of Edward IV. 

PLATE XXVI.- Arms, supporters, and badges of the 
Lady Margaret Beaufort, 1455. 

lion of March and a lean spotted beast not Supporters 
unlike an otter, collared and chained (pi. 
xxv). The lady Margaret Beaufort, on the 

Fig. 125. Seal of Richard Beauchamp earl 
of Warwick and of Albemarle and lord 
Despenser, 1421. 

other hand, ensigns on both her seals her 
paternal arms of Beaufort with the Somer- 
set eagle and uses for her supporters a pair 
of yales (pis. xxvi, xxx). 

It is of course all important that sup- 
o 209 

Supporters porters should be shown standing upon 
something sohd, and not on so precarious 
a footing as the edge of a motto or forked 

Fig. 126. Seal of Edmund duke of Somerset 
for the town of Bayeux, c. 1445. 

scroll. One of the beautiful armorial 
groups with the supporters of King Henry 
VII in King's college chapel at Cambridge 
(fig. 128) shows how effectively and yet 
unobtrusivel}^ this may be done. In the 
splendid panel at New Hall in Essex with 

the crowned arms, etc. of King Henry Supporters 
VIII his dragon and greyhound supporters 
stand in a bush of roses and pomegranates 
(fig. 189) ; and in the well-known glass at 
Ockwells the supporters have fields full 
of flowers to stand on. 

Besides the more or less regular use of 
supporters just described, there are a 
number of curious and irregular ways of 
supporting shields. These deserve special 
attention, not only from their value in 
showing how delightfully heraldry used to 
be played with, but as precedents for similar 
variety of treatment at the present day, 
when supporters so called often do not 
support anything. Over the doorway, for 
example, of the National Portrait Gallery 
in London the 'supporters' of the royal 
arms are merely a pair of cowering beasts 
at the base of the shield. 

Quite an early instance of playful treat- 
ment is furnished by the seal of Roger 
Leybourne {oh. 1284). This has a small 
banner standing behind the shield, which 
is hung on a tree with side branches ; one 
of these supports the crested helm, and the 
other ends in a bunch of leaves (pi. xi a). 

Thomas lord Holand and Wake (<:. 
1353) has within a traceried panel a tree 


Fig. 127. Seal of Cecily Nevill, wife of Richard duke 
of York and mother of King Edward IV, 1461. 

standing in a rabbit warren and supporting Supporters 
his crowned helm with its huge bush of 
feathers. Hanging on either side are two 

Fig. 128. Arms and supporters, a dragon and 
a greyhound, of King Henry VII in King's 
college chapel at Cambridge. 

shields, one with beautiful diapering of his 
lordship of Wake, the other (originally) of 
his lordship of Holand (pi. xxvii a). 

Thomas of Woodstock duke of 


Supporters Gloucester, son of Edward III, used from 
about 1385 a lovely seal with the stock of 
a tree standing within a paling and sur- 
rounded by water on which float two 
chained Bohun swans, for his wife Eleanor 
Bohun ; from the tree hangs a large 
shield of the duke's arms, with his crested 
helm above, and from two side branches 
are suspended diapered shields of the earl- 
dom of Hereford {azure tzvo hendsy one gold, 
the other silver) also m reference to his 
Bohun marriage. 

Margaret daughter of Richard Beau- 
champ earl of Warwick and wife of John 
Talbot earl of Shrewsbury and Waterford, 
in her fine shield (after 1433) suspends by 
their straps her father's shield and the 
impaled shield of her husband and herself 
from the ragged staff of her father's house 
(pi. XXVII b). 

Thomas Holand earl of Kent used in 
1398 a seal bearing his badge of a white 
hind with a crown for a collar, reclining 
under a tree, and with the shield of his 
arms hanging round its neck (pi. xviii b). 

In the fourteenth century seal of the 
mayoralty of Calais a boar has a cloak tied 
about his neck and flying upwards banner- 
wise to display the arms of the town, which 




Thomas lord Holand and Wake, c. 1350. 

_.„^3mM ^i-^- -"'-if^?* 

^K^F^K^gtSS^M^' '' ^^I^^Ih^Bk&^Ihir^^^^EL wa 



^y iwrMwWiy 



^^'^J«r /^ , ^ 


ret Beauchamp, wife of John 
earl of Shrewsbury, after 1433. 


PLATE XXVII. — Methods of arranging shields. 

were barry wavy with a crowned (?) leopard Supporters 
rampant (fig. 129). A similar treatment 
occurs on the half-florin of King Edward 
III, which has for device a crowned sitting 
leopard with a cloak about his neck with 
the royal arms. 

On one of his seals as regent of France 

Fig. 129. Seal of the mayoralty of Calais. 

(1422-35) John duke of Bedford has an 
eagle standmg with one leg upon his badge, 
the root of a tree, and holding in its other 
claw a shield of his arms. 

William lord Fitz Hugh (1429) and of 
Marmion shows on his seal his quartered 
shield ensigned by his helm and crest, 


Supporters which was apparently a Ron's head. The 
rest of the beast is somewhat incongruously 
squatting behind the shield and has the 
paws thrust out on each side to grasp two 
banners of arms that complete the com- 
position (pi. XXVIII a). 

A similar pair of banners appears on the 

Fig. 130. Seal of Walter lord Hungerford 
with banners of Heytesbury and Hussey 
or Hornet, c. 1420. 

seal of Walter lord Hungerford, which 
has the shield 'supported' by two 
Hungerford sickles, and surmounted by 
the crested helm, with flanking banners of 
the arrns of the lordships of Heytesbury 
and Hussey (fig. 130). 

William lord FitzHugh (1429) and of Marmion. 

Margaret lady Hungerford and Botreaux, 1462. 

PLATE XXVIII. — Examples of banners of arms. 

Banners also figure prominently on the Supporters 
charming seal of Margaret lady of Hunger- 
ford and Botreaux (1462) (pi. xxviii b). 
She was the daughter of William lord 
Botreaux and Margaret Beaumont, and 
wife of Sir Robert Hungerford, who died 
in 1459. The seal shows the lady in 
her widow's dress sitting upon her knees 
in a garden, and reading from a book some 
words which are inscribed on a scroll about 
her head. Overshadowing her are two 
large banners of impaled arms : one of 
Hungerford and Botreaux, upheld by a 
lion ; the other of Botreaux and Beaumont, 
upheld by a griffin. 

On many late thirteenth and early 
fourteenth century seals it was not un- 
common to represent ladies holding up 
shields of arms. A delightful example 
that may be cited is that of Emmeline 
FitzGerald, and wife of Stephen Longespee, 
who is upholding her father's shield in her 
right and her husband's in her left hand. 
Below each shield is a leopard of England 
to show her husband's close relationship to 
the royal house, and on each side of her is a 
long sword. She died in 1331 (pi. xxix b). 

A few cases occur where a man himself 
acts as the supporter of his arms. One 


of the shields of Henry Percy earl of 
Northumberland (1377) shews him in 
armour, standing behind a large shield of 
Percy which he supports with his left 
hand. His right is upon the hilt of a 
sword with the belt wrapped about it, and 
against his left shoulder rests a banner with 
the Percy lion. The earl appears in similar 
fashion in another of his seals as lord of 
Cockermouth (1393). In this the shield is 
quarterly of Percy and Lucy, and is grasped 
as before by his left hand, while the right 
holds up a pennon charged with his badge 
of a crescent (pi. xxix a). 

It must suffice to quote one last piece of 
playfulness, a seal of Richard duke of 
York and earl of March and Ulster {oh. 
1460) as justice-in-eyre of the forests. 
This has his shield of arms suspended 
about the neck of a York falcon, and 
enclosed b}' the horns of a buck's head in 
base, in reference to his office. Upon the 
buck's horns are fixed two small hands for 
the duke's earldom of Ulster (pi. xxix c). 




The Royal Banner of Arms ; The Banner of 
the Arms of the City of London; Shapes of 
Banners; Sizes of certain Banners; Upright 
versus Long Banners ; Advantages of the 
Upright Form; Banners with Achievements of 
Arms; Modern Use of Banners 

Representations of banners constantly 
occur in medieval pictures (fig. 131); and 
as has been shown above, they are not 
infrequent upon seals. 

Everyone is familiar with the banner of the 
royal arms that betokens the presence of the 
King, and with our splendid national banner 
known as the Union Jack. The banner with 
the arms of the city that is flown above the 
Mansion House when the lord mayor is in 
residence is familiar to Londoners, and the 
citizens of Rochester are equally accustomed 
to see the banner of their city flying on 
Sunda3^s and holidays from the great tower 
of their castle. Let a banner once be re- 
garded in the light of a rectangular shield 


Banners of and its fitness to contain armorial bearings 

Arms immediately becomes apparent. The King's 

banner is now always miscalled 'the royal 

Pig. 131. Knights with banners, from an illumination 
in Royal MS. 19 B xv in the British Museum. 

Standard/ even in official language, though 
heraldically it is not a standard at all but 
simply a banner. 


Medieval banners at first were oblong Banners of 
in shape, and set upright with a longer side ^^^^ 
next the staff. In the late thirteenth 
century pictures formerly in the painted 

Fig, 132. Seal of Walter lord Hungerford 
with banners. 

chamber in the palace of Westminster 
the banners borne by the knights were 
more than twice as tall as they were broad. 
The same proportion survives even in 
the famous pictorial pageant of Richard 
Beauchamp earl of Warwick, drawn about 
1493 ;* but the majority of the banners 
therein shown have a height one and 

* Brit. Mus. Cott. MS. Julius E., IV. 


Banners of three quarter times the width, which is 

Arms better for the display of heraldry. This is 

also the proportion of the banners on 

William lord Hungerford's seal (fig. 132), 

but the banners with impaled arms on lady 

Fig. 133. Part of the seal of Margaret lady 
Hungerford, with impaled banner held up 
by a lion. 

Hungerford's seal are nearly square (fig. 
133). On the monument in Westminster 
abbey church of Lewis lord Bourchier {ob. 
143 1 ) the large quartered banners at the 
ends, upheld by lions and eagles, are slightly 
less than a square and a half in area, and 
admirably proportioned for displaying arms 
(fig. 134). The banner of King Edward IV 

Fig. 134. Tomb of Lewis Robsart lord Bourchier, K.G., 
oh. 143 1, in Westminster abbey church, with banners 
of arms upheld by supporters. 

Banners of 'which also hung over his grave' in St. 
Arms George's chapel in Windsor castle is 
described as of 'TafFaty, and thereon 
painted quarterly France and England ; it 
had in breadth three foot four inches, be- 
sides a Fringe of about an inch broad, and 
in depth five foot and four inches, besides 
the Fringe.' * Ashmole, in his description 
of the banners hung above the stalls of 
the Knights of the Garter, states (in 1672) 
that *the fashion of the Soveraign's and 
all the Knight-Companions Banners are 
square ; but it doth no where appear to us, 
of what size their Banners anciently were ; 
yet in Queen Elizabeth's Reign, we find 
them two yards and a quarter long, and a 
yard and three quarters broad, beside the 
Fringe (which is made of Gold or Silver 
and Silk, of the colours in the Wreath) and 
thereon are wrought or beaten upon 
TafFaty-Sarcenet, double-Sarcenet, or rich 
TafFaty, with fine Gold and Colours, on 
both sides, the paternal Coat of the Knights 
Companion, together with his Quarterings, 
or so many of them as he please to make 
use of, wherein Garter is to take care that 

* Elias Ashmole, The histitution, Laws and Cere- 
monies of the most Noble Order of the Garter (London, 
1672), 149. 


the\^ be warrantlv^ marshalled. . . . These Banners of 
banners of Arms are fixed to the end of Arms 
long Staves, painted in O}^, formerly with 
the Colours of the Wreath, but now 
Red.' * 

The remark here as to the quarterings, 
in view of the comments upon them in an 
earlier page of this book, is interesting, but 
it is more important to note that both the 
banner of King Edward IV, and those of the 
Knights of the Garter in Queen Elizabeth's 
time, were of similar proportions to those 
on the Bourchier monument. 

The fact is that the heraldic draughts- 
men of even this late period were fully 
as aware as their predecessors of the diffi- 
culty of drawing arms in a banner that ex- 
ceeded the width of a square, and they 
also appreciated the greater advantage 
of an area that was narrower than that 

The longer form of banner may be 
tolerated for so simple a combination as 
the Union Jack, or even for such of its 
component parts as the cross of St. Andrew 
or the saltire of St. Patrick, but it is rarely 
possible so to arrange heraldry upon it as 

* Ibid. 335, 336. 

P 225 

Banners of to look well, and even the cross of St. 
Arms George looks better upright thus 



extended unduly horizontally. 

In the King's banner as at present borne 
it is practically impossible to draw the arms 
artistically, or with a proper balancing 
relation of field and charge (fig. 135). The 
leopards of England may be so outrageously 
lengthened and attenuated as nearly to fill 
the quarters allotted to them, but it is im- 
practicable to displa}^ properly the upright 
form of the ramping lion of Scotland or to 
expand horizontally the Irish harp. In 
the banner, too, of the lord mayor of 
London as used on the Mansion House 
to-day, the sword of St. Paul in the quarter 
can onl}^ be drawn of the comparative size 
of Sir William Walworth's dagger, which 
it is in consequence so absurdly mistaken 
to be. 



Banners of Were, however, the King's arms (see 
Arms frontispiece) and those of his city of 
London placed on upright oblong or even 
square banners, all difficulties of drawing 
them would be avoided, and from appearing 
to be glaring examples of mean modern 
heraldr}^ they would forthwith become fine 
pieces of artistic decoration. 

A close approximation to the better way 
of displaying the King's arms is illustrated 
by the lately adopted banners of Queen 
Mary and Queen Alexandra, both of which 
show the Sovereign's arms impaling those 
of his consort. The King's arms are thus 
restricted to half the usual length of the 
present 'royal standard,' that is, to a square, 
and so can be drawn with less waste space 
on either side of the charges. 

Whatever be their shape, banners, like 
shields, ought as a rule to be covered com- 
pletely with the heraldry, like the banners 
of the Knights of the Garter at Windsor 
(which, though modern, are quite good in 
this respect) and those of more recent 
institution of the Order of St. Michael and 
St. George in St. Paul's cathedral church. 

Examples are not lacking, even in the 
fifteenth century, of banners charged with 
regular heraldic achievements instead of 


arms, and quite an interesting series maybe Banners of 
found amongthe Windsor stall-plates. Two Arms 
small oblong plates of Sir Peter Courtenay 
and Henry lord FitzHugh are practically 
complete banners of their arms, but Walter 
lord Hungerford (after 1426) displays his 
arms, with helm, crest, and mantling, upon 
a dull black banner with fringed gold 
border attached to a writhen gilded staff 
(fig. 136). Richard Nevill earl of Salisbury 
{c. 1436) (fig. 137), John earl of Shrewsbury 
{c. 1453), John lord Tiptoft (<:. 1461), 
and several others have their arms, etc. 
on plain gold-coloured fringed banners, 
but Richard lord Rivers {c. 1450), Thomas 
lord Stanley {c. 1459), and George duke 
of Clarence (c 1461), have the field worked 
all over with decorative scroll work. Sir 
John Grey of Ruthin (c. 1439) also displays 
his arms on an undoubted banner with black 
ground and gold fringe and staff (fig. 138), 
and William lord Fauconberg {c. 1440) 
on a banner with the field bend}^ of blue 
and silver, with a gold fringe and staff. It 
is not improbable that several other quad- 
rangular stall-plates with coloured grounds 
represent banners. Edmund of Langley 
duke of York has the field paly of three 
pieces of silver, green, and black ; John duke 


Banners of 











Fig. 136. Stall-plate, as a banner, of Walter 
lord Hungerford, after 1426. 

of Bedford (1422-3) has a ground party 
blue and silver, and Thomas duke of 
Exeter (c. 1422) a ground all black. 


.'r^T7^r^i^^l[fjmm i 




Banners of 

Fig. 137. Stall-plate, as a banner, of Richard 
Nevill earl of Salisbury, c. 1436. 

John duke of Somerset (r. 1440) has 
the field of his plate bendy of silver, red, 


Banners of 

Fig, 138. Stall-plate, as a banner, of Sir 
John Grey of Ruthin, c. 1439. 

and green, with a gilded border of scrolled 
leaves ; and Walter lord Mountjoy {c. 1472) 

disposes the same three colours in vertical Banners of 
stripes. ^^"^^ 

Two similar displays of heraldic achieve- 
ments are to be found in a manuscript at 
the Heralds' College.* In one of these 
the arms, etc. of Sir Richard Nanfant 
(ob. 1506-7) are painted upon a quad- 
rangular field party of blue and green. In 
the other the impaled shield of Sir Richard 
and his dame, upheld b}^ an angel, is painted 
upon a ground having the upper three- 
fourths red and the fourth part pale pink.f 

In modern practice there is no conceiv- 
able reason why banners for the display of 
arms should not be more widely adopted ; 
not only as banners proper, to fly upon a 
stafF, but in decorative art, such as painting, 
sculpture, and embroidery. Both the Royal 
Society and the Society of Antiquaries reg- 
ularly notify their existence in Burlington 
House by displaying banners of their arms 
over their apartments, and their example is 
one that might be followed by other cor- 
porations entitled to bear arms. On the 
use of banners by individuals it is un- 
necessary to enter after the useful series 

*MS. M3. 

t Illustrated Catalogue of the Heraldic Exhibitioriy 
Burlingto?i House, 1894 (London, 1896), pi. xxviii. 

Banners of of examples and usages thereof already 
Arms noted. 

The curious flags known as standards, 
which were in use during the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries, seem to have been 
borne simple for display in pageants or at 
funerals. For decorative purposes they are 

Fig. 139. Standard of Sir Henry Stafford, K.G., 
c. 1475. 

most effective, and as they were anciently 
borne by men of eveiy degree down to and 
including esquires, they might with much 
advantage from the artistic standpoint 
again be devised and brought into use. 

A standard (fig. 139) was a long narrow 
flag with the lower edge horizontal, and the 
upper gradually descending from the staff 
to the extremity, which was split into two 
rounded ends. A compartment next the 
staff always contained the arms of St. 


George. The rest of the ground not infre- Banners of 
quently was formed of two, three, or four Arms 
horizontal stripes of the Uvery colours of the 
owner, and divided into three sections by 
two slanting bands with his word, reason, or 
motto. Upon the section next to the St. 
George's cross was generally displayed the 
principal beast or other device of the bearer 
and in later times the crest on a torse, while 
the other sections and the field in general 
were powdered with badges or rebuses. 
The whole was fringed of the livery 

The series illustrated in the volume in 
the De Walden Library on "Banners 
Standards and Badges from a Tudor Manu- 
script in the College of Arms" will supply 
ample evidence of the playful composi- 
tion of ancient standards, and hints as to 
the way in which they may be invented 

Pennons were small and narrow flags of 
varying length, sometimes pointed, some- 
times swallow-tailed at the end, fixed below 
the point of a lance or spear and carried by 
the owner as his personal ensign (fig. 140). 
That held by Sir John d'Abernoun in his 
well-known brass (c. 1277) at Stoke d'Aber- 
noun is short and pointed and fringed, and 


Banners of bears his arms {azure a cheveron gold). A 

Arms contemporary illustration of a large and 

more fluttering form of pennon is to be 

Fig. 140. Knights with pennons, from an illumination 
in Royal MS. 19 B xv in the British Museum. 

seen in fig. 141. An example of a pennon 
charged with a badge, in the shape of the 
Percy crescent, occurs on the seal of Henry 

Fig, 141. Armed Knights carrying pennons, temp. 
Edward I. From an illumination in Arundel MS. 
83. f. 132. 

Banners of Percy earl of Northumberland, who is 
Arms shown with it in his hand (pi. xxix a). 

In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries 
it was not unusual to set up on gables, 
pinnacles, and other high places, figures of 
animals holdmg banners as vanes or orna- 
ments. Heraldic beasts as finials began to 
be used even in the thirteenth century, 
and an example so early as 1237 is noted 
on the Pipe Roll of 22 Henry HI, when a 
charge occurs 'for making and setting up 
a certain lion of stone upon the gable of 
the King's hall'* within the castle of 
Windsor. Examples of the fourteenth 
century are hard to find, but in the 
fifteenth century and first half of the 
sixteenth they are common enough. In 
most of these later examples the creatures 
sit up and support shields with arms or 
badges ; some, like the fine groups at 
Mapperton in Dorset, once held vanes 
as well. 

Early vanes from their tendency to 
decay are rare. In 1352-3 14s. were 
spent 'upon a vane of copper painted 
with the king's arms, bought to be put 
upon the top of the hall of the king's 

*'Et in quodam leone de petra faciendo et 
erigendo super gabulum in eadem aula.' 


college' * in Windsor castle ; and a delight- Banners of 
ful example, also of copper, pierced with the Arms 
arms of Sir William Etchingham, its builder 
{ob. 1389), still surmounts the steeple of 
Etchingham church in Sussex (fig. 142). 
A simple specimen of an iron vane may yet 
be seen on Cowdray House in the same 
county. The octagonal steeple of Fother- 
ingay church, Northants, built at the cost 
of Richard duke of York c. 1435, is sur- 
mounted by a fine representation in copper 
of his badge, the falcon within a fetterlock. 
The employment of a creature to hold 
up a banner of arms was already no novelt}^ 
in the fifteenth century, and examples have 
been noted above of those on the tomb of 
Lewis lord Bourchier {oh. 143 1) and on the 
seal of Margaret lady Hungerford (c. 1460) ; 
to which may be added the banner bear- 
ing lion on the seal (c 1442) of Henry 
Percy, eldest son of Henry second earl 
of Northumberland. The conversion 
therefore of the sitting beast into a vane 
holder came about quite naturally. A 
good instance of the end of the fifteenth 
century forms a charming finial to the well- 

* "Et in una vane de cupro picta de armis Regis 
empta ad ponendum super summitatem aule CoUegij 
Regis ibidem, xiiij s." Pipe Roll, 28 Edward III. 


Fig. 142. Armorial vane on Etchingham 
church, Sussex. 

known kitchen at Stanton Harcourt in Banners of 
Oxfordshire, but the griffin which sits aloft Arms 
there has, alas, no longer a vane to hold 

(fig- 143)- 

Quite an array of such vane holders was 
set up early in the sixteenth century upon 

Fig. 143. Vane formerly upon the finial of the 
kitchen roof at Stanton Harcourt, Oxon. 

the pinnacles of the nave clerestory of St. 
George's chapel in Windsor castle, and 
the contract made in 1506 for completing 
the quire in like fashion provides for *as 
well the vautte within furth as archebotens, 
crestys, corses, and the King's bestes 
stondyng on theym to here the fanes on 

the outside of the 

said quere, and the 
G 241 

Banners of creasts, corses (and) beasts above on the 
Arms outsides of Maister John Shornes Chappell/ 
The contract made in 151 1 for finishing 
the adjacent Lady Chapel also includes 
^making up crests corses and the Kings 
bestes stondyng on theym to here furth 
squychons with armes.' These beasts 
holding their glittering vanes seem to have 
been completed only so far as the great 
chapel was concerned, and are plainly 
shown in Hollar's engraving of the build- 
ing ; but they were all taken down in 1682 
by the advice of Sir Christopher Wren, 
who suggested that pineapples be set up in 
their stead ! 

Another mention of figures with vanes 
occurs in the contract made in 1546 for 
the building of the Coventry cross : 

And further to set on every principall 
pinnacle in the lowest story of the same 
new Crosse, the Ymage of a Beast or a 
foule, holding up a fane, and on everie 
principall pmnacle m the second story 
the image of a naked bo)^ with a Targett, 
and holding a Fane.* 

These beasts, fowls, and boys obviously 

* T. Hearne, Liber Niger, n, 620. 


performed a double duty, like the creatures Banners of 
on Mapperton manor house. ^^ 

The exact nature of the 'King's bestes' 
at Windsor and elsewhere is illustrated by 
the accounts for the building of the great 
hall of Hampton Court in 1533-4. These 
include payments 'for the workyng and 
makyng of a lyon and a dragon in stone, 
standyng at the Gabull ends of the said 
hall'; 'for two pynnys of irne for stayes 
for the two bests of freston, standyng 
at the gabyll endes of the haull' ; and 
'for gylding and payntyng of two vanys, 
servyng the bests of freston stondyng at 
the endes uppon the haull, oon of the 
Kynges arm3^s, the other of the Quenys, 
wrowghte w^^th fyne golde and in owyle.' 
Further payments are 'for makyng of 29 
of the Kynges bestes to stand upon the 
new batilments of the Kynges New Hall, 
and uppon the femerell of the said Hall' 
and 'for 16 vanys for the bestes standyng 
upon the battylment of the hall.' Also 'for 
the payntyng of 6 great lyons, standyng 
abowght the bartyllment, of tymber worke, 
uppon the Kynges New Hall,theyre vaynys 
gylte with fyne golde and in oyle,' and for 
the painting 'of 4 great dragons & of 6 
grewhounds servyng the samebarttylment.' 


Banners of There are also payments to a * Karver 
Arms fQj. karvyng and coutting of 2 grewhondes, 
oon l3^bert, servyng to stande uppon the 
typpis of the vycys abowght the Kynges 
new haull,' and to a 'paynter, for gyldyng 
and payntyng of 2 grewhondes, oon 
lybert, syttyng upon basys baryng vanys, 
uppon the typys at the haull endes' ; like- 
wise 'for gyldyng and payntyng of 24 
vanys with the Kynges armes and the 
Quenes badges.' * 

The free use of external colouring should 
be noted. 

The use of the King's beasts as heraldic 
adjuncts was not confined at Hampton 
Court to the building only, but they were 
made to do duty, in an equally delight- 
ful manner, as garden decorations. Thus 
the payments already quoted include 

for makyng and entajdling of 38 of the 
Kynges and the quenys Beestes, in free- 
ston, barying shyldes wythe the Kynges 
armes and the Quenys ; that ys to say, 
fowre dragownes, seyx lyones, fy^^ 
grewhoundes, fyye harttes, foure Inny- 

* Ernest Law, The History of Hampton Court Pal- 
ace (London 1903), i. 346-348. 


cornes, servyng to stand abowght the Banners of 
ponddes in the pond yerd ; ^^^^ 

for cuttyng and intayHng of a lyon and 
grey-hound in freestoon, that is to say, 
the lyon barying a vane with the Kynges 
armes, &c. servyng to stand uppon the 
bases of freeston abought the ponds ; 

for pynnes servyng the pyllers of free- 
stoon that the beastes standyth uppon 
abowght the ponds in the pond yerd ; 

for payntyng of 30 stoon bests standyng 
uppon bases abowght the pondes in the 
pond yerd, for workmanship, oyle, and 
collers. Also 

for payntyng off 180 postes wyth white and 
grene * and in oyle . . . standyng in the 
Kynges new garden ; 

also for lyke payntyng of 96 powncheones 
wyth white and grene, and in oyle, 
wrought wyth fyne antyke uppon both 
the sydes beryng up the rayles in the 
s^yd Garden ; 

also for lyke payntyng of 960 yerdes in 
leyngthe of Rayle.f 
The quaint aspect of such an heraldic 

garden has been preserved to us in the 

* White and green were the livery colours of 
King Henry VIII. 

t Law, op. cit.y i. 370, 371. 

Fig. 144. Part of King Henry VIII's garden at 
Hampton Court, from a contemporary picture. 

Fig. 145. Part of King Henry VIII's garden at 
Hampton Court, from a contemporary picture. 

Banners of large picture at Hampton Court itself of 
Arms King Henry VHI and his family. This 
has at either end archways in which stand 
Will Somers the King's jester and Jane the 
fool, and behind them are delightful peeps 
of the garden, with its low brick borders 
carrying green and white railings, and its 
ga}^ flower beds from which rise tall painted 
posts surmounted by the King's beasts 
holding up their glittering vanes (figs. 144, 


Before finally leaving the subject of 
banners, a few remarks may be ofi^ered 
touching our beautiful national banner 
which we call the Union Jack. 

This charming and interesting com- 
position is not only, in a large number of 
cases when it is flown, displayed upside 
down, but in a still greater number of 
instances it is made quite incorrectly. 

The first Union Jack, that in use from 
1606 to 1 801, combining as it did only 
the cross of St. George for England and 
the saltire of St. Andrew for Scotland, 
presented little diflRculty, since there was 
practically no excuse for not drawing the 
St. Andrew's cross straight through from 
corner to corner. But the present Union 
Jack is a much more diflficult banner to 









B .^^H 


■~1 1 







draw, as well as to understand, and the Banners of 
prevailing ignorance of its history even Arms 
among so-called 'educated' people is 

The Union Jack consists actually of (i) 
the banner of St. George with its white 
field reduced to a narrow edging on all 
sides of the red cross, to enable it to be 
superposed, without breaking the heraldic 
rule of colour upon colour, upon (ii) the 
blue banner of St. Andrew, with his white 
cross ; but since the Union with Ireland 
there has been combined with these (iii) 
the banner of St. Patrick, which has a red 
saltire upon a white field. This combina- 
tion, in order to meet Scottish suscepti- 
bilities, has been effected in a very peculiar 
but ingenious way, first, by treating the 
Irish banner like that of England, and 
reducing its white field to a narrow edging 
about the saltire, and then by slitting this 
down the middle of each arm, and joining 
the pieces to the opposite sides of St. 
Andrew's saltire similarly treated, yet so 
that the Scottish pieces are uppermost next 
the staff. It thus comes about, that what- 
ever be the shape of the flag, whether 
square or oblong, two straight lines drawn 
across it diagonally from corner to corner 


Banners of should always equall}^ divide the Scottish 
Arms ^j^(j Irish crosses, and if this cannot be done 

the flag is not correctly built up (pi. xxxi). 
It also happens that unless the flag is 
exactly square the blue sections of the field 
must diff'er more or less in size. Ignorant 
flag-makers try to correct this, but only by 
dislocating in the middle the diagonal lines 
that ought always to be straight and con- 

The right way up of a Union Jack is 
indicated b}^ the Scottish, that is the 
broader white, half of the diagonal mem- 
bers being always uppermost in the two 
pieces next the staff". 



Arms of Husband and Wife; Dimidiating; Im- 
paling; Scutcheons of Pretence; Impalement 
with Official Arms; Arms of Ladies; Heraldic 
Drawing; Mottoes; Use and Misuse of the 
Garter; Lettering and Mottoes. 

In gathering up for practical consideration 
some of the points already discussed, as 
well as others that are suggested by them, 
something may first be said on the ways of 
combining the arms of husband and wife. 
This was done originally by simply setting 
them side by side, a plan which of course 
may still be followed whenever it is thought 

For a short time during the latter part 
of the thirteenth and beginning of the four- 
teenth century the arms of husband and 
wife were combined in one shield by the 
curious device of halving or 'dimidiating' 
them, by joining the half of the one to the 
opposite half of the other, as in the arms of 
Aymer of Valence and Mary Seynt Pol, 


Marshalling Still borne (since 1347) by the lady's foun- 

of Arms dation of Pembroke College at Cambridge. 

Owing however to the many inconveniences 

which this plan involved, it was soon ex- 

FiG. 146. Shield of Bryen impaling Bures, 
from a brass in Acton church, Suffolk. 

changed for the more simple way of 
'impaling' or placing the entire arms of 
both parties side by side in one shield 
(fig. 146 and pis. viii c, xviii a, b), a 
practice that has continued ever since, 

except when the wife is an heiress. In Marshalling 

that case the lady's arms are usually drawn of Arms 

upon a smaller shield and placed upon the 

middle of the husband's arms (pi. v a). 

This ugly and most inconvenient plan, 

though of considerable antiquity, might 

very well be amended by the more ancient 

way of quartering the arms together, as is 

still done by the children of the heiress. 

For rules for the combination of the arms of 

a husband who has married two or more 

wives, or the cumbrous regulations as to 

quartering, the student may, if he wishes, 

consult the various manuals of heraldry. 

When a man is a member of any Order, 
such as the Garter or the Bath, only his 
own arms should be encircled by the in- 
signia of the Order. Exceptions to this 
rule can of course be found, but it is other- 
wise a general one that ought strictly to be 
followed. Bishops are entitled to bear 
their personal arms only impaled with 
those of their bishopstool or cathedral 
church, and the same rule applies to deans, 
heads of colleges, and regius professors 
(like those at Cambridge) who have official 
arms. The chancellor of a University 
presumably may impale its arms with his 


Marshalling It has already been shown that the arms 
of Arms Qf ladies, all through the medieval period, 
were borne in precisely the same way as 
their fathers' or their husbands', that is 
upon a shield, lozenge, or roundel, and that 
the present inconvenient restriction to a 
lozenge did not come into use much before 
the middle of the sixteenth century, when 
heraldry and heraldic art were already on 
the down-grade. The present custom 
seems to be for the arms of married ladies 
to be borne upon shields, and of widows 
and spinsters upon lozenges. From the 
artistic standpoint it would certainly be 
desirable, whenever it is thought advisable, 
to revert to the freedom of pre-Elizabethan 

Enough has already been said as to the 
elasticity of drawing shields, helms, crests, 
and mantlings, and as to the proper use of 
supporters, but a few words may be added 
as to the proper way of drawing the various 
creatures that are used in heraldry. 

Since heraldry is a survival of what was 
once a living thing, it is clear that if modern 
work is to look well, animals and birds 
ought to be drawn in a more or less conven- 
tional manner (figs. 148, 149). Some, such 
as elephants, dogs, falcons, etc. ma\^ be 


drawn almost directly from nature ; but Marshalling 
others, especially lions, if so represented of Arms 
would manifestly be unfit to consort with 
the leopards, the wivers, the griffins, the 
two-headed eagles and other delightful crea- 

FiG. 147. Lion with a forked tail, from a 
brass at Spilsby in Lincolnshire, 1391. 

tures of the early heralds which they bor- 
rowed from the bestiaries. The conven- 
tional treatment should not, however, be 
carried to excess, nor should natural forms 
be too closely copied. Here, as in other 
matters connected with heraldry, a compar- 
ative study of good ancient examples will 
soon show what are the best types to follow. 


Marshalling It would be an advantage too, if artists 
^t Arms -v^ould revert to the old ways of represent- 

FlG. 148. Shield with three pheasants, from a 
brass at Checkendon, Oxon, 1404. 

ing the furs known as ermine and vair. 
The ancient ermine tails did more or less 
resemble the actual tail of an ermine, but 

Fig. 149. Shield of the arms of Sir Humphrey Little- 
bury, from his effigy at Holbeach in Lincolnshire, c. 
1360, with fine examples of heraldic leopards. 

Marshalling the modern object with its three dots above 

of Arms }^^g PQ Hkeness to it whatever (fig. 150); 

So too with regard to vair, which represents 

• .• 

Fig. 150. Early and modern versions of 

the skins of grey squirrels, the modern 
treatment of it as rows of angular eigh- 

FlG. 151. Early and modern versions of 

teenth centur}^ shields is far removed from 
the conventional forms of the real skins 
seen in the best old work (fig. 151). 

It has already been pointed out that 
there are no strict rules as to the particular 
shades of colour allowable in heraldry, and 


it is one of the surprises of the student to Marshalling 
find what dull and cold tones were anciently °^ Arms 
used that yet look quite right. The ap- 
parently bright reds, for example, of the 
enamel in the early stall-plates at Windsor 
are actual y brick-colour, and the apparent 
fine blues a cold grey ; but their combina- 
tion with gilding and silvering makes all 
the difference in the ultimate beautiful rich 

One thing that ought to be most 
scrupulously avoided in all modern heraldic 
decoration is the indicating of the gilding 
and colouring by the pernicious 'dot-and- 
dash' system. This is all very well as a 
kmd of shorthand m one's own notes or 
memoranda, but it is utterly destructive of 
artistic effect if applied in actual work. 
Ancient shields in relief were no doubt 
invariably painted, like those still to be 
seen behind the quire at Westminster; but 
let any one try to imagine the fine series at 
York or St. Albans scored and pecked to 
indicate the colour and gilding. If the 
heraldic carvings are not to be painted, at 
any rate do not let their surfaces be 
disfigured. They may always be relieved 
by diapering. 

The treatment of mottoes may not, at 


Marshalling first sight, seem to fall within the scope of 
of Arms ^j^js work, but actually it is one of very 
real importance. There is much to be said 
for the theory that mottoes are derived 
from the war cries of early times, and 
hence their frequent association with the 
crest worn upon the helm. Reference has 
already been made to examples upon seals 
and other authorities. The association of 
a motto with a shield only was not common 
anciently, and when it is so found it is 
generally placed on a scroll, like the well- 
known examples on the tomb of Edward 
prince of Wales at Canterbury (fig. 85). 
In later times, when shields began to be en- 
circled by the Garter of the famous Order 
(fig. 152), mottoes were often arranged 
about the shield m a similar way. 

There was however always this very 
important and noteworth}^ difference and 
distinction, that the buckled band now so 
commonly used for mottoes was anciently 
never allowed for any but the motto of 
the Order of the Garter. Other mottoes 
were written on a band which was fastened 
in a different way, or merely disposed 
Garter-wise round the shield. 

The earliest known representation of the 
Garter is on a singular lead or pewter me- 


dallion (fig. 153) commemorative of Edward Marshalling 
prince of Wales, first Prince of the Order, of Arms 
now in the British Museum. In this 

Fig. 152. The Garter, from the brass of Thomas 
lord Camoys, K.G., at Trotton in Sussex. 

the prince is kneehng bare-headed before 
a personification of the Holy Trinity, with 
his gloves on the ground before him, and 
an angel standing behind him and holding 
his crested helm. The whole is enclosed 
by a buckled band inscribed l]OnY foyt fc 


of Arms 








Fig. 153. Pewter medallion with Edward prince of 
Wales, now in the British Museum. 

mal Y P^'^^K% with a cloud overlapping 
its upper margin from which issues an 

angel holding down the prince's shield of Marshalling 
arms. of Arms 

It has been customary from within a few 
years of the foundation of the Order in 
1348 for the Knights-Companions to en- 
circle their personal arms with the Garter. 

In a wardrobe account of Kmg Edward 
III, from 14 February 1349-50 to 30th 
September 1351, payments are entered for 
the making 'of two pencells of sindon de 
Triple, each having in the midst a Garter 
of blue smdon with a shield within the 
same Garter of the King's arms quartered, 
and beaten throughout the field with eagles 
of gold ' ; but representations of such a usage 
are hard to find. A good early example 
is aflPorded by the monumental brass at 
Trotten in Sussex of Thomas lord Camoys 
{oh. 1419). (Fig. 154.) 

In illustration of the care above referred 
to of distinguishing the Garter motto from 
any other, two concrete examples may be 
cited : one on the brass at Constance of 
Robert Hallam bishop of Salisbury {oh. 
1416), where the King's arms are encircled 
by the Garter, and the bishop's own arms 
by an open scroll with a scripture (fig. 155); 
the other on the west porch of the cathedral 
church of Norwich, where the arms of King 


Marshalling Henry VI have the Garter about them 
of Arms ^j^j ^j^g arms of the builder of the porch, 
bishop WilHam Alnwick (1426-36), are 
surrounded by a scroll with his motto. 

Fig. 154. Shield of arms {a chief mid three roundels 
on the chief) encircled by the Garter, from the 
brass of Thomas lord Camoys {ob. 1419). 

This distinction was carefully borne in 
mind when the insignia of British Orders, 
other than that of the Garter, were devised, 
and in every case their mottoes are displa^^ed 
on plain and not buckled bands. In the 


Albert Medal for Bravery, however, the Marshalling 
encircling motto has been most improperly of Arms 
placed on a buckled band like the Garter, 
and the people who supply 'heraldic 
stationery' are notorious offenders in the 
same direction.^ 

The lettering of a motto must of course 

Fig. 155. Shields encircled by the Garter 
and a scroll, from the brass of Bishop 
Hallam {ob. 1416) at Constance. 

depend upon the circumstances of its use. 
Nothing looks so well as the so-called 
'old-English' or small black-letter, espe- 
cially if the height of the words is as 
nearly as possible the same as the width of 
the band or scroll, and the capitals are not 
unduly prominent ; but the form of capital 
known as Lombardic is always preferable 
to those of the black-letter alphabet. When 





a o 

capitals alone are used, fanciful types should Marshalling 
be avoided; a good Roman form such as of Arms 
is often found in Tudor inscriptions being 

Fig. 157. Arms of St. George within the 
Garter, from the brass of Sir Thomas 
Bullen, K.G., earl of Wiltshire and 
Ormond, 1538, at Hever in Kent. 

far better. If the motto to be set about a 
shield is a short one it can often be ex- 
tended conveniently, if necessary, by a judi- 


Marshalling cious use of ornamental devices like roses 
of Arms Qj. other flowers between the words. The 
ends of scrolls with mottoes have a more 
satisfactory appearance if shown partly 
curled up and partly pulled out spirally, 
than if forked and waved, as may so often 
be seen now-a-days. Scrolls always look 
better if not bordered or edged in any 
way, but this does not apply to the narrow 
bounding line that may be necessary in 
enamelled work. 




Crowns and Coronets ; Introduction of Coro- 
nets ; Coronets of Princes, Dukes, and Earls ; 
Bequests of Coronets ; Illustrations of Coronets 
and Crowns; Collars and Chains; Collars of 
Orders; Lancastrian Collars of SS; Yorkist 
Collars of Suns and Roses ; Tudor Collars of SS ; 
Other Livery Collars; Waits' Collars; Collars 
and Chains of Mayors, Mayoresses and Sheriffs ; 
The Revival of Collars ; Inordinate Length of 
modern Collars. 

At the present day it is the habit of divers 
ladies of rank to surmount their hair, when 
occasion allows, with diamond tiaras of 
surpassing splendour. The ladies of olden 
time were not free from a similar weakness, 
but the diamond mines of South Africa 
being then unknown, and other gems too 
costly, they encouraged the goldsmiths to 
make them beautiful crowns and crestings, 
with which they adorned their heads and 
headgear. A reference to the accurate 
drawings and details published by Stothard 
m his Monumental EffigieswiW show not only 


Crowns, the high artistic excellence of these orna- 

Coronets, ments, but also how becoming they were 

Collars ^^ ^^^ ladies who wore them. They varied 

greatly in design, from the simple circlet 

Fig. 158. Crowned effigy of Queen Eleanor at 

of fleurons and trefoils of Queen Eleanor 
of Castile (fig. 158) to the sumptuous piece 
of jewellery beset with pearls and stones, 
which is represented on the alabaster effigy 
of Queen Joan at Canterbury (fig. 159) 
and reflects so worthily the yet more 
splendid crown of her husband, King 
Henry IV (fig. 173). 

Attention has already been drawn to the Crowns, 

decorative use of crowns in heraldry, and Coronets, 


Fig. 159. Crowned effigy of Queen Joan at 

a reference promised to the coronets of 
peers and peeresses. 

Coronets, as they are now called, origi- 
nated as early as 1343, when Edward duke 
of Cornwall and earl of Chester was created 
Prince of Wales, and invested by his father 
with a circlet (serium) on his head, a gold 
ring on his finger, and a golden verge which 


Crowns, was placed in his hand. The circlet in 
Coronets, question passed into the possession of his 
Collars brother, Lionel duke of Clarence, who in 
1388 left in his will 'a golden circlet with 
which my brother and lord was created 
prince' as well as 'that circlet with which 
I was created duke.' This latter event 
happened in 1362, at the same time that his 
brother John of Gaunt was created duke 
of Lancaster, when King Edward girded 
his son with a sword and put upon his 
head a fur cap and over it ' un cercle d'or 
et de peres,' a circlet of gold and precious 
stones. This investiture with a coronet 
was for some time restricted to dukes, but 
in 1385 King Richard II bestowed upon 
Richard earl of Oxford the new dignity of 
marquess of Dublin, and invested him with 
a sword and a circlet of gold. 

The investing of an earl with a coronet 
does not seem to have become customary 
before the reign of Edward VI, but earls 
had worn coronets in virtue of their rank 
for a long time previously. In April 1444, 
when Henry Beauchamp earl of Warwick 
was created premier earl by Henry VI, the 
letters patent of his appointment empower 
him 'to wear a golden cnxlet upon his 
head and his heirs male to do the same on 

feast days in all places where it is convenient Crowns, 
as well in our presence as of others.' But Coronets, 
the practice can perhaps be carried still Collars 
further back, for Selden in his Titles of 
Honour (p. 680) quotes a receipt dated 
1 3 19 by William of Lavenham, treasurer 
of Aymer of Valence earl of Pembroke of 
*a gold crown of the said earl.' 

By his will dated 1375 Richard FitzAlan 
earl of Arundel leaves to Richard his son 
'my best crown {ma melieure coroune) 
charging him upon my blessing that he part 
not with it during his life, and that after 
his death he leave it to his heir in the same 
manner to descend perpetually from heir 
to heir to the lords of Arundel in remem- 
brance of me and of my soul.' He also 
leaves to his daughter Joan 'my second- 
best crown' and to his daughter Alice 'my 
third crown,' under similar conditions. The 
earl's best crown may be that shown upon 
the alabaster effigy at Arundel of his grand- 
son Thomas earl of Arundel, to whom it was 
bequeathed by his father (fig. 163). It has 
alternate leaves and pearled spikes, similar 
to but richer and better in design than the 
earls' coronets of to-day. Sir N. H. Nicolas 
suggests that earl Richard's second and third 
coronets were bequeathed to his daughters 
s 273 , 





because both were countesses ; Joan being 

wife to Humphrey Bohun earl of Hereford, 

and AHce to Thomas Holand earl of Kent. 

There are other bequests of coronets to 

Fig. i6o. Helm and crest, and bust, of Richard 
Beauchamp earl of Warwick, ob. 1439, from his 
gilt latten effigy at Warwick. 

ladies : Edmund Mortimer earl of March 
and Ulster left in 1380 to his daughter 
Philippa, afterwards wife to (i) John 


Hastings earl of Pembroke, (2) Richard Crowns, 
earl of Arundel, and (3) John lord St. John Coronets, 
'a coronal of gold with stones and two Collars 
hundred great pearls {mi coronal d'or ove 
perie et deuz cents grands perles) and also a 
circlet with roses, with emeralds and rubies 

, (7 // / Jh 

Fig. 161. Effigy of a lady, c. 1250, in Scarcliffe 
church, Derbyshire. 

of Alexandria in the roses {iin cercle ove 
roses emeraiides et rubies d'alisaundre en les 
roses).' Michael de la Pole earl of Suffolk 
also left in 141 5 to his wife Katherine the 
diadem or coronet which had belonged to 
her father Hugh earl of Stafford, who died 
in 1386. 






The swan's head crest of Richard Beau- 
champ earl of Warwick {ob. 1439) on his 
effigy at Warwick is encircled by a crown of 
stalked pearls, not unlike those of an earl's 
coronet of the present day (fig. 160). 

Among Stothard's engravings are two of 

Fig. 162. Effigy of a lady in Staindrop 
church, Durham. 

effigies of quite early date of ladies wearing 
crowns or coronets. One, at Scarclifl^e in 
Derbyshire (fig. 161), can not be later than 
about 1250, and the crown in this case is 
composed of some twenty simple leaves set 
upright upon the edge of a narrow band. 
The other, at Staindrop in Durham, is about 
a century later, and represents a widowed 

lady, probably Margery, second wife of Crowns, 

John lord Nevill, wearing a crown of curled Coronets, 


Fig. 163. 

Thomas earl of Arundel, ob. 1416, 
his alabaster effigy at Arundel. 

leaves with points between (fig. 162). The 
next illustration is of special interest since 
it represents Thomas earl of Arundel {oh. 


Crowns, 1 41 6) wearing presumably the coronet 

Coronets, mentioned above in his grandfather's be- 

Collars quest (fig. 163) ; his countess Beatrice has a 

sHghter coronet of similar character. The 

Fig. 164. Joan Beaufort, countess of West- 
morland, ob. 1440, from her alabaster 
effigy in Staindrop church, Durham. 

great alabaster tomb, also at Staindrop, of 
Ralph earl of Westmorland {oh. 1425) and 
his two countesses furnishes the next ex- 
ample. In this case the earl is in armour, 
but both ladies wear delicate coronets, 
formed of rows of points with triplets of 

pearls and intervening single pearls, rising Crowns, 
from narrow ornamental circlets (fig. 164). Coronets, 

of Arundel, Collars 

The tomb of another earl 
WilHam FitzAlan {ob. 1487), 

and of his 

Fig. 165. William FitzAlan, earl of Arundel 
{ob. 1487), from his effigy at Arundel. 

countess Joan, further illustrates the use 
of coronets. The earl's coronet is in this 
case composed of a continuous row of leaves 
with a jewelled band (fig. 165) ; the count- 
ess wears a similar coronet, but curiously 


Crowns, distorted behind, evidenth^ because it was 
Coronets, ^u u^ ^ u u • u 

and thought to be more becoming when so worn 

Collars (fig. 1 66). 

The monument in St. Peter's church 

Fig, i66. Joan countess of Arundel, from 
her effigy at Arundel. 

in Sheffield, of George earl of Shrewsbury 
{ob. 1538) and his two wives represents 
him in armour, with the mantle and collar 


of the Garter, and a coronet, now broken. Crowns, 
about his head. His wives also have Coronets, 
coronets, which are happily complete, and Collars 
are composed of continuous series of twelve 
short points tipped with pearls. The earl's 
coronet seems to have had similar points 
but with sixteen pearls instead of twelve. 

The effigy circa 1500 at Whitchurch 
in Salop of that famous warrior, John 
Talbot earl of Shrewsbury, v/ho was killed 
in 1453, also represents him in the mantle 
of the Garter over his armour and a coro- 
net about his head. This is unfortunately 
badly broken but seems to have resembled 
that on the Sheffield figures. 

Besides these examples of coronets of 
earls and their countesses a few illustra- 
tions of those worn by dukes and duchesses 
may be cited. 

It has been already noted that the shields 
on the monument of Humphrey duke of 
Gloucester {ob. 1446) at St. Albans are 
surmounted alternately by crested helms 
and by caps with coronets. These coronets 
have a richly jewelled circlet on which is set, 
instead of leaves, a series of what seem to 
be cups full of daisies, with small triplets 
of pearls between. 

Another good coronet is to be seen 


Crowns, on the effigy of Thomas Holand duke of 

Coronets, Exeter (ob. 1447) on the monument 

Collars formerly in St. Katharine's hospital by the 

Tower, now in the chapel in Regent's 

Fig. 167. John Holand duke of Exeter, 0^. 1447, from 
his effigy at St. Katharine's Hospital, Regent's Park. 

Park. The duke's coronet here is quite 
narrow, and composed of some eighteen or 
twenty trefoils set close upon a band (fig. 
167) ; but his two duchesses have coronets 
of triplets of pearls with intermediate 
single pearls, like those of the countesses of 
Westmorland at Staindrop (fig. 168). 

The alabaster effigy at Ewelme of Alice, Crowns, 
widow of William duke of Suffolk {oh, ^'''^^l''^' 
1450), shows her in a beautiful coronet of Collars 
fleurs-de-lis alternating with small clusters 

Fig. 168. Head of a duchess of Exeter, from the monu- 
ment at St. Katharine's Hospital, Regent's Park. 

of pearls (fig. 169), and similar coronetsonce 
adorned the effigies at Wingfield in Suffolk 
of her son John de la Pole duke of Suffolk 
{ob. 1491) and his wife Elizabeth. 

The privilege of wearing coronets was 
not extended to viscounts until the reign 
of James I., and to barons until 1661. 






The official patterns of coronets to which 
peers and peeresses are now restricted, have, 
as may be seen from the examples above 
cited, practically no relation to the older 

Fig. 169. Alice duchess of Suffolk, ob. 1475, from 
her alabaster effigy in Ewelme church, Oxon. 

forms, which exhibited the usual delightful 
medieval elasticity of design. 

The present coronets too are rendered 
uglier than ever by the modern rule for- 
bidding them to be jewelled in any way. 
This was not formerly the case. Among 


the stuff remaining in the palace of West- Crowns, 
minster in 1553, and dehvered to lady ^°^""J^^' 
Jane Grey, was 'a coronet for a duke, set Collars 
with five roses of diamonds, six small 
pointed diamonds, one table emerald, six 
great ballases, seven blue sapphires, and 
thirty-eight great pearls, with a cap of crim- 
son velvet and a roll of powdered armyns 
about the same;' and a beautifully orna- 
mented coronet of much earlier date than 
the painting is shown in a portrait of John 
marquess of Winchester, the defender of 
Basing House, who died in 1674. 

It is the custom now for ladies of rank 
to wear their coronets only at coronations, 
and to display them on their note paper, 
their spoons and forks, and on the panels 
of their carriages and motor cars. Such 
coronets cannot however be considered 
artistic objects, even when depicted apart 
from the crimson velvet bonnets which 
they encircle, and there is no reason why 
ladies should not devise and wear coronet- 
like ornaments of their own invention. 

A little research will show that crowns 
of every form and fashion have always 
been freely used in heraldic decoration, 
both by themselves and as ensigning 
letters or other devices, and so long as 


■~t 'sr-,^-^,J- mf 

t* * ^ 

I r "^ ■ %4l jiiS ^^Mlt > '^^-^;i#W 

,0 fcJD 
as ^ 

0^ U 


03 "^j 

fcJG O 

-O -r; 


C aj 

Crowns, care be taken not to infringe what may be 

Coronets, called official patterns, there are really no 
and 1- • • r 1 

limits to a continuance or the ancient 




The lady Margaret Beaufort, countess 
of Richmond and mother of King Henry 
VII, has left us a delightful series of 
coronets. First, on a seal newly made 
for her on the accession of her son, her 
shield of arms is ensigned with a coronet 
or crown of roses and fleurs-de-lis placed 
alternately along the edge of a narrow band 
(pi. xxx). Shortly after 1505 the lady 
Margaret began to build Christ's College at 
Cambridge, and both the gatehouse (fig. 
170) and the oriel of the master's lodge 
(fig. 171) are rich in heraldic decora- 
tion. In this case both her arms and her 
portcullis badge are ensigned with coronets 
set with a continuous row of triplets of 
pearls.* In the lady Margaret's later 
foundation of St. John's College, her arms, 
etc. again are displayed upon the stately 
gatehouse ; in this case with a coronet of 
roses and fleurs-de-lis over the shield, as in 
her seal (fig. 172). Her portcullis badge on 
the other hand has over it a fine coronet 

* On the gatehouse the coronet over the arms has 
been restored. 


PLATE XXX.— Crowned shield with supporters and badges 
of the Lady Margaret Beaufort, 1485. 

Crowns, formed of clusters of roses, which recalls 
Coronets, ^|^g circlet of roses set with emeralds and 
Collars rubies of Alexandria mentioned earlier in 
this chapter. It is quite easy to conjure 
up visions of coronets or circlets formed of 
lilies or marguerites, or of roses red and 
white, or of any other suitable flower or 
device, wrought in gold or gilded silver, 
and either jewelled or bright with enamel. 
And let designers take heart when so 
recent and yet so picturesque an object as 
the so-called 'naval crown' can be pro- 
duced, with its cresting of sterns and square 
sails of ships. This was used most efl^ec- 
tively some years ago as one of the decora- 
tions encircling the Nelson Column in 
London on Trafalgar Day. 

It may be as well to point out that the 
ro3^al crown has been composed, from the 
fifteenth century, of crosses alternating 
with fleurs-de-lis, and since the coronation 
of King Henry IV it has been distinguished 
by being arched over cross-wise. The 
splendid open crown shown on the efiigy 
of the king at Canterbury (fig. 173) is 
not that wherewith he was crowned, but 
another worn with the parliament robes 
in which he is represented. Beautiful 
examples of crowns of simpler type are 

afforded by the effigies of King Henry III Crowns, 
(fig. 174) and King Edward II (fig. 175). ^-o-", 
When the lady Ehzabeth Wydville became Collars 
the queen of Edward IV, she ensigned her 

Fig. 173. King Henry IV from his alabaster effigy 
in Canterbury cathedral church. 

arms with a beautiful crown or coronet of 
alternate large crosses and fleurs-de-lis with 
smaller fleurs-de-lis between, rising from a 
richly jewelled band (pi. xxv), and a rich 
example of the crown of King Henry VIII 
so treated is to be seen on the great carved 
panel with his arms, etc. at New Hall in 






Essex (fig. 189). Crosses and fleurs-de- 
lis are now used only in the coronets of 
those of royal blood. 

From ornaments for the head it is easy 
to pass to those for the neck. 


1 "^ 




r rr 








- J^ 


Fig. 174. King Henry III from his gilt-latten 
effigy at Westminster. 

The wearing about the neck of some- 
thing which was considered decorative or 
becoming has been customary with the fair 
sex in every part of the world and in all 
ages of Its histoiy, and necklaces of every 
form, material, and fashion are as popular 
to-day as ever. But less attention is now 


paid to the decorative collars that once were Crowns, 
worn not onh^ by women but b}" men. Coronets, 

It has always been a mark of distinction Collars 
or dignity to wear about the neck a chain 

Fig. 175. King Edward II, from his alabaster effigy 
at Gloucester. 

or collar of gold, silver, or silver-gilt, either 
as an ornament or a decoration of honour, 
or as a badge of partizanship ; and the 
most noteworthy of these to-day are the 
collars of the various orders of Knighthood, 
such as the Garter (fig. 177), the Thistle, 
and the Bath. 


Crowns, The history and characteristic features of 

Coronets, these are well known, and representations 

Collars ^^ them abound ; moreover the wearing of 

Fig. 176. Crowned initials of King Henry 
VII from his lady chapel at Westminster. 

them is confined to a few privileged persons. 
It is therefore hardly necessary to discuss 
them further in a work like the present. 

The case is however different with 
regard to the so-called livery collars, since 
these may properly be regarded as models 


Fig. 177. Thomas Howard third duke of Norfolk 
(i473(r)-i554), with the collar of the Order of the 
Garter, from the picture by Holbein at Windsor Castle. 

for the formation and construction of such 
similar collars as ma}^ freely be worn to-day. 


Crowns, The most notable of such decorations 

Coronets, during the medieval period was the collar 
Collars ^^ SS which formed the distinctive cogni- 
sance of the House of Lancaster (figs. 178, 

Fig. 178. Collars of SS. 

1. From the brass of Lady Camoys 1419, at Trotton 

in Sussex. 

2. From the brass of Sir William Calthorpe, 1420, 

at Burnham Thorpe in Norfolk. 

179). It was worn by persons of every 
degree, from the King and Queen to the 
knight and his esquire, and it was likewise 
worn by their wives and even conferred on 

The collar of SS was apparently invented 


by King Henry IV before his accession, Crowns, 
and quite a number of important entries Coronets, 
that throw hght upon its history occur in Collars 
his household accounts while he was only 
Henry of Lancaster earl of Derby. 

In 1 390-1 a gold signet was engraved 

Fig. 179. Collar of SS from the effigy of 
William lord Bardolf, ob. 1441, at Denning- 
ton in Suffolk. 

for him 'cum j plume et j coler/ of which 
unhappily no impressions are known. In 
1391-2 there was made for him a 'coler' 
of gold 'with seventeen letters of S after 
the manner of feathers with scrolls and 



Crowns, scriptures in the same with a swan in the 
Coronets, tiret.' This recalls the badge upon one 
of Henry's own seals as Earl of Derby 
(1385), described above (p. 167), an ostrich 
plume entwined with a scroll and the 
scripture ]OUPCrCYnc (pi. xxiv c), and we 
know from other sources of Henry's favour 
towards the Bohun swan, which device he 
used in right of his first wife, the lady 
Mary Bohun. The collar of SS moreover, 
on the efligy of John Gower the poet {oh. 
1402), m Southwark cathedral church, has 
a swan on the pendant of it, and no doubt 
represents the collar actually given to him 
by Henr}^ of Lancaster in 1393-4. The 
inital letter, too, of the charter granted to 
the city of Gloucester by Henr}' as King in 
1399, contains a crown encircled b}' a collar 
of SS ending in two lockets between which 
is a pendant charged with a swan. The 
earl's accounts for 1393-4 mention the 
purchase of the silver of 'a collar made 
with rolled esses and given to Robert 
Waterton because the lord had given the 
collar of the same Robert to another 

In 1396-7 a charge is entered 'for the 
weight of a collar made, together with 
esses, of flowers of ]Ol\ncjnc POUS ^C 

mOY,* hanging and enamelled, weighing Crowns, 
eight ounces.' Coronets, 

What these flowers were is uncertain. QqIi^j. 
Charges for making 'flores domini ' occur 
in 1 390-1 and other years, and in 1 391-2 
three hundred leaves {? flowers) de souveine 
vous de moy of silver-gilt were bought for 
one of the earl's robes. 

In 1407 Henr}^ of Lancaster as King 
ordered payment to be made to Christo- 
pher Tildesley, citizen and goldsmith of 
London, of the huge sum of £385 6s. 8d. 
*for a collar of gold worked with this word 
fOPCi^nC5 and letters of S and X en- 
amelled and garnished with nine large 
pearls, twelve large diamonds, eight balases 
and eight sapphires, together with a great 
nouche in manner of a treangle with a 
great ruby set in it and garnished with four 
large pearls. 't 

Most of these entries suggest that the 
mysterious SS stand for Soveig7iez^ and 
possibly at one time this was the case, but 

* In 1426 Sir John Bigod lord of Settrington left 
to his daughter a covered cup 'pounset cum sovenez 
de moy'; perhaps a gift to him from Henry of 
Lancaster. Testamenta Eboracensia (Surtees Soc. 4) 
i. 411. 

t P.R.O. Issue Rolls (Pells) Mich. 8 Henry IV 


Crowns, Henry's seal as earl of Derby in 1385 
Coronets, containing the feathers with the scripture 
CoUars fouPerCYUe must not be overlooked. 
There is moreover, on a fragment which 
has fortunately survived in a tattered and 
burnt mass of fragments of a jewel account 
of Henry's reign in the Public Record 
Office, the important entry of a payment 
to Christopher Tildesley of 'a collar of 
gold made for the King with twenty-four 
letters of S pounced with [ODCrattt, and 
four bars, two pendants, and a tiret with a 
nouche garnished with a balas and six large 
pearls (the balas bought of the said 
Christopher for £10 and the price of the 
pearls at 40J., being £12) weighing 7 oz. 
Troy at 23^. ^d. £8 3J-. \d. Also a black 
tissue for the same collar 3J. ^d. and for 
the workmanship of it £4.'* The King's 
word ]OrcraYnc also occurs many times, 
with the Queen's word a temperance, on 
the tester over their monument at Canter- 
bury, which has likewise the shield of arms 
for the King, the King and Queen, and the 
Queen alone, encircled in each case with a 
collar of SS with golden eagles placed upon 
the tiret. Gold eagles also form stops be- 
tween the repetitions of the word )OlXTaYne. 
* Accounts, Exch. K. R. 404 / 18. 

Another example of a collar of SS with Crowns, 
an eagle as a pendant is to be seen on the ^^^ ' 
monument of Oliver Groos, esquire {oh. Collars 
1439) in Sloley church, Norfolk (fig. 180). 

Fig. 180. Spandrel of the tomb of Oliver Groos, Esq. 
{ob. 1439) in Sloley church, Norfolk, with collar of SS. 


Crowns, Examples of effigies in stone or brass of 

Coronets, men and women wearmg the collar of SS 

Collars ^^'^ common throughout the Lancastrian 
period. The SS seem in most cases to be 
represented as sewn or worked upon a band 
of silk, velvet, or other stuff,* which usually 
ends in buckled lockets, hnked by a trefoil- 
shaped tiret, from which is hung a small 
ring (fig. i8i). 

Several other interesting occurrences of 
the collar of SS may be noted. In one of 
the windows in the chapter house at Wells 
is a shield of the arms of Mortimer, and 
next to it a gold star within the horns of a 
crescent party blue and silver, encircled 
by a collar of SS also half blue and 
half white. As there are associated with 
these the arms of the King and of Thomas 
duke of Clarence {ob. 1421), they probably 
commemorate Edmund Mortimer earl of 
March, who died in 1425. 

In 1449 a receipt given to the steward 
of Southampton by the prior of the Shene 
Charterhouse, which was founded by King 
Henry V, bears a seal with tbs within a 
collar of SS ; and in St. Mary's church at 

* Notice of the theft of a collar of black silk dotted 
(stipatum) with silver letters of SS is entered on the 
Patent Roll of 7 Henry IV (1406), part ii, m. 29. 


Bury St. Edmunds the ceiling over the Crowns, 

tomb of John Baret, an ardent Lancastrian Coronets 
•^ and 


Fig. i8i. Collars of SS from (i) the effigy of Queen 
Joan at Canterbury, and (2) the effigy of Robert 
lord Hungerford at Salisbury. 

who died in 1480, is painted with collars 
of SS surrounding his monogram. 


Crowns, There Is also in a MS. in the British 

Coronets, Museum,* written probabl}^ for John lord 
Collars Lovel {oh. 1414), a painting of the arms of 
Holand quartering Lovel surrounded b}^ a 
collar, one half of which is white and the 
other half blue, with gold letters cf SS, 
having for a pendant a gold fetterlock, 
party mside of red and black. 

On a brass c. 1475 at Muggington 
in Derbyshire the Beaufort portcullis 
appears as a pendant to the collar of SS. 

With the rise to power of the Yorkists 
on the accession of Edward IV a rival collar 
to that of the Lancastrian livery came into 
vogue, composed of blazing suns and York 
roses disposed alternately (fig. 182). It 
may be seen in various forms on a number 
of monumental efiigies and brasses, usually 
with the couchant white lion of the house 
of March as a pendant, but on the accession 
of Richard III the lion was replaced by 
his silver boar. On the wooden Nevill 
effigies at Brancepeth the earl has a collar 
of rayed suns with the boar pendant, 
while the countess has a collar of alternate 
suns and roses. Joan countess of Arundel, 
on her effigy at Arundel (fig. 166), shows 
another variation by interpolating the 
*Harl. MS. 7026, f. 13. 

FitzAlan oak leaves between the suns and Crowns, 
the roses. Coronets, 

I Collars 

Fig. 182. Collars of suns and roses from (i) 
the effigy of a knight of the Erdington 
family at Aston, Warwickshire, and (2) from 
the effigy of Sir Robert Harcourt K.G., 
1471, at Stanton Harcourt, Oxon. 

u 305 

Crowns, After the accession of Henry VII the 

Coronets, collar of SS was again revived, but with 
Collars variations and different pendants. The 
effigy, for example, at Salisbury of Sir John 
Cheyney K.G. {ob. 1489) has appended to 
his SS collar a large portcullis charged 
with a rose. A collar of gold, weighing 
over 7 ounces, is recorded to have been 
given in 1499 to adorn the image of the 
Holy Trinity in Norwich cathedral church 
and is described as containing twenty-five 
letters of S, two tirets, two 'purcoles' (port- 
cullises) and one double R (.^) with a red 
rose enamelled.* A similar collar, but all of 
gold, is shown in the portrait of Sir Thomas 
More, painted by Holbein in 1527 (fig. 183). 
On a brass c. 15 10 at Little Bentley in Essex 
the collar of SS has a portcullis pendant, and 
on the Manners effigy (c 1513) at Windsor 
and the Vernon effigy (1537) at Tong 
the pendant to the knight's collar is a large 
double rose. 

The collars on the Salkeld effigies (1501) 
at Salkeld in Cumberland are composed of 
SS and four-leaved flowers alternately, and 
that worn by Sir George Forster {oh. 1526) 
on his tomb at Aldermaston in Berkshire is 
of SS laid sideways and alternating with 
* Norwich Sacrist's Register, xi. f. iii. 



Fig. 183. SirThomas More wearing the collar of SS; 
from an original portrait painted by Holbein in 
1527, belonging to the late Mr. Edward Huth. 

knots, and has a portcullis and rose pendant. 
In 1545 Sir John Alen, sheriff in 1518 and 


lord mayor in 1525 and 1535, bequeathed 
for the use of the lord mayor of London, 
and his successors for ever, his collar of 
SS, knots, and roses of red and white 
enamel ; and a cross of gold with precious 
stones and pearls was given to be worn 
with it in 1558. An effigy of a Lisle c. 
1550 at Thruxton in Hants has a similar 
collar of SS, knots, and roses, also with a 
cross as a pendant. Sir John Alen's collar, 
somewhat enlarged, and with a modern 
'jewel' as a pendant, is still worn b}^ the 
lord mayor of London, and is the only 
medieval collar of SS that has survived. 

After the reign of King Henry VHI the 
wearing of the collar of SS gradually 
became restricted to judges and other 
officials, and has so survived to the present 
day, when it is still worn in England by 
the lord chief justice, the kings-of-arms, 
heralds, and pursuivants, and by the ser- 

The lord chief justice's collar, like all 
those formerly worn by the judges, is com- 
posed of SS and knots ; the others of SS 

Beside the livery collars above mentioned, 
others have been worn from time to time. 

In the exquisitely painted dipt^ch of 


Richard II and his avowries, now at Wilton Crowns, 
House, the King has about his neck a collar Coronets, 
formed of golden broom-cods, and the Collars 
gorgeous red mantle in which he is habited 
is covered all over with similar collars en- 
closing his favourite badge, the white hart. 
A collar of gold 'de Bromecoddes' with a 
sapphire and two pearls occurs in the great 
inventory taken on the death of King 
Henry V, and a collar formed of SS and 
broom-cods was also made for King Henry 
VI in July 1426.* 

On his effigy at Ripon {c. 1390) Sir 
Thomas Markenfield displays a collar 
formed of park palings, which widen out 
in front to enclose a couchant hart (fig. 184). 
If this were not a personal collar, it may 
have been a livery of Henry of Lancaster 
as earl of Derby. 

A brass of the same date of a knight, 
formerly at Mildenhall, showed him as 
wearing a collar apparently once composed 
of scrolls with scriptures, joining in front 
upon a large crown with a collared dog or 
other beast within it. 

The brass at Wootton-under-Edge of 
Thomas lord Berkeley (ob. 1417) shows 

* John Anstis, The Register of the most noble Order 
of the Garter (London, 1724), ii. 116 note. 

Crowns, him with a collar sewn with mermaids, the 

Coronets, cognisance of his house (fig. i80- 

and ^ ^ ^ ^^ 

Fig. 184. Head of the effigy in Ripon Minster 
of Sir Thomas Markenfield with livery collar 
of park-palings. 

In his will dated 1430 William Stowe 
the elder, of Ripon, a retainer in the 


household of the earl of Northumberland, Ci 
bequeathes his silver livery Anglu 

ice cres- 


saiint and his livery Anglice coller to the q^^^^ 
shrine of St. Wilfrid.* Possibly the 'cres- 
saunt' was an object similar to that here 
figured (now belonging to the Duke of 


Fig. 85. Thomas lord Berkeley {ob. 1417) with a 
collar of mermaids, from his brass at Wootton- 
under-Edge, Gloucestershire. 

Northumberland), and the collar like that 
formed of p's and crescents enclosing p's 
linked together which is engraved upon it 

(fig. 186). 

* "Item ego liberaturam meam argenteam Anglice 
cressaunt, et liberaturam meam Anglice coller. ad 

feretrum Sancte Wilfridi 

Test. Ehor. ii. 13. 



The earlier collars, as has already been 
noted, were composed of devices sewn 
upon a band of stuff, but in later examples 
a more open treatment is found wherein 
the devices are linked together by short 

Fig. i86. Silver badge belonging to the 
Duke of Northumberland. 

pieces of chain, as in the collar of SS 
shown in Sir Thomas More's portrait. 
The Yorkist collar of suns and roses on an 
effigy at Erdington is so treated, as is the 
collar of SS and flowers on the Salkeld 
effigies, which may perhaps be a personal 
and not a livery collar. 

Collars of similar construction, but always Crowns, 
of silver, with pendent scutcheons of the Coronets, 
town arms, were worn b}' the little bands Collars 
of minstrels called waits, formerly in the 
employ of most towns of importance (fig. 

In London the six waits appointed in 1475 
had silver collars of SS with scutcheons of 
the city arms. At Exeter the four waits' 
collars, dating from about 1500, still exist, 
and are formed of roundels with 3£'s and 
H's alternately (fig. 187). Two beautiful 
waits' collars at Norwich (r. 1550) are com- 
posed of silver castles and gilded leopards 
alternately, like those in the appended shield 
(fig. 187). The waits' collars at Lynn were 
formed of scrolled leaves alternating with 
dragons' heads pierced with crosses, like 
those in the town arms, which are allusive 
of St. Margaret (fig. 187). At York the 
collars are formed wholly of little silver 
leopards, and at Beverley of eagles and 
beavers alternately. The waits' collars at 
Bristol date from the reign of Queen Mary, 
and are composed of pierced roundels con- 
taining alternately the letters CB and a 
rose dimidiating a pomegranate. 

The wearing of collars, or chains as they 
are called, by mayors, ma3^oresses, and 

Fig. 187. Waits' collars, of Exeter, King's Lynn, and Norwich. 

sheriffs is comparatively modern. It was Crowns, 

formerly the custom for every person of Coronets, 

di • J • and 

ignity to wear a cham, and it was Collars 

only when chains began to go out of 

fashion that the wearing of them survived 

among persons of particular dignity such 

as mayors and sheriffs. 

The collar of SS worn by the lord mayor 

of London is an exceptional example, and 

the only other early mayor's chain is that 

given to Kingston-on-Hull in 1564 and 

remade in 1570. A plain gold chain was 

bequeathed to the city of York in 161 2, 

and 'a fayre chayn of gold double 

linked with a medall of massy gold' was 

given to the town of Guildford in 1673. 

In 1716 a gold chain for the mayor was 

given to the city of Norwich, but passed 

on for the use of the deputy mayor on a 

new chain being given in 1757. Yarmouth 

bought itself a chain in 1734, and seven 

other towns became possessed of mayors' 

chains towards the end of the eighteenth 

century. Down to 1850 some fifteen more 

mayors' chains came into existence, mostly 

of simple type, like the older chains, with 

one or more rows of plain or ornate links, 

Since 1850 practically every town that can 

boast of a corporation has likewise got a 


Crowns, chain for its mayor, and appalling creations 
Coronets, many of them are, with rows of tablet links. 
Collars ^"^ armorial pendants as large as saucers. 
A simple gold chain to be worn by the 
sheriffs of Norwich was given in 1739, but 
those at Chester, Newcastle, Exeter, and 
other places are quite recent. In London 
it has been the custom for the friends and 
admirers of the sheriffs to present them with 
elaborate gold collars on their accession to 
office, but these are happily private prop- 
erty and not official insignia. The same 
description applies to them as to the recent 
mayors' chains. 

Chains for mayoresses have not yet be- 
come general, but they are being multiplied 
yearly. The mayoress of Kingston-on- 
Hull had an official chain as early as 1604, 
but it was sold as being * useless' in 1835. 
The lady mayoress of York has a chain of 
plain gold links given in 1670, which is 
regularly weighed on its deliveiy and re- 
turn by the wearer. All other mayoresses' 
chains are quite recent, and in most cases 
of the same fearsome design as those worn 
by their husbands. 

The unfortunate mayors, mayoresses, 
and sheriffs are practically at the mercy of 
ignorant and inartistic tradesmen for the 

designing and making of the collars they Crowns, 
are called upon to wear officially, but that Coronets, 
is no reason why people with more en- Collars 
lightened ideas should not invent, design, 
and wear collars or chains that are beau- 
tiful in themselves. The examples already 
quoted and the many illustrations of others 
that are accessible will show what comely 
ornaments the old heraldic collars were, 
and many a lady would look well in a 
collar to whom a necklace is most un- 
becoming. Flowers, letters, and devices of 
heraldic import can easily be embroidered 
in gold, or struck out of metal and 
enamelled, and then be sewn down on 
velvet or silk stuff, or linked together by 
fine chains. 

But let every wearer of a chain or collar 
avoid the error of making it too long. 
The ancient collars were quite short, and 
therefore rested comfortably and easily 
upon the shoulders. Official collars have 
however grown to so preposterous a length 
that they have to be tied with bows of 
ribbons upon the shoulders to hinder them 
from slipping off the wearer altogether ! 
The reason of this is curious and instruc- 
tive. The old collars were, as aforesaid, of 
sensible dimensions, but the introduction 


Crowns, of wigs in the seventeenth century necessi- 
Coronets, tated the collars being lengthened to be 

Collars worn outside them. Wigs had their day 
and at last disappeared from general wear, 
but the lengthened collars remain, and it 
has not occurred to anyone in authority 
that they might now advantageously be 
shortened. So the inconvenience goes on. 



The Introduction of Armorial Insignia in Em- 
broidered Vestments : on Robes : on Beds, etc. 

No one who has had occasion to examine 
any series of old wills and inventories, 
especially those of the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries, can fail to have noticed 
what a large part was played by heraldry 
in the household effects of our forefathers. 
In the vestments and other ornaments of 
the chapel, the hallings, bankers, and 
like furniture of the hall, the hangings and 
curtains of the beds and bedchambers, the 
gold and silver vessels and utensils of the 
table, or in carpets and cushions and foot- 
stools, shields of arms, badges, mottoes, 
and quasi-heraldic devices of all sorts were 
as common as blackberries in autumn. 

And the evidence of illuminated pictures 
and monumental effigies is equally strong 
in showing that heraldry was quite as much 
in vogue for personal adornment. 

As a matter of fact heraldry had its very 


Fig. i88. Part of an c-nihroidcrcd altar frontal with 
a rebus at Baunton in Gloucestershire. Date, late 
fifteenth century. 

origin in a system of devices to be worn Heraldic 
on shields and banners and coats-of-arms Embroi- 
to distinguish the wearer in battle, and 
from the coat-of-arms of the knight it was 
but a step to the armorial gown or mantle 
of his lady. 

It would be somewhat tedious to extract 
from the authorities just cited, especially 
since they are easily accessible, every entry 
relating to an heraldic ornament or piece 
of furniture. But with regard to hangings 
and embroideries the case is somewhat 
different, inasmuch as numbers of ladies 
are engaged nowadays in stitch-work of 
every kind, amongst which heraldic em- 
broidery ought certainly to have a p'ace. 

As might be expected, the inventories of 
Church stuffs furnish us with some of the 
earliest examples of heraldic embroideries, 
and often in sufficiently precise terms to 
enable us to realize what the things looked 

Thus an inventor}^ taken in 13 15 of the 
ornaments at Christchurch, Canterbury, 
enumerates such things as a chasuble and 
five copes, the gift of Katharine Lovel, 
sewn with arms of divers persons ; a 
white cope of the arms of the King of 
Scotland ; a cope of Peter bishop of Exeter 
X 321 

Heraldic {ob. 1291) of baudekyn ^with biparted 
Embroi- shields ' (an early example) ; a cope of 
John of Alderby bishop of Lincoln, and 
another of Thomas Burton bishop of 
Exeter, of green cloth embroidered with 
shields ; an albe with apparels of blue 
velvet embroidered with shields and fleurs- 
de-lis ; two albes sewn with shields and 
black letters, and a third of red samite 
embroidered with shields and popinjays; 
an albe sewn with lozenges with the arms 
of the King of England and of Leybourne ; 
an albe sewn with shields and embroidered 
with letters ; an albe sewn with the arms 
of Northwood and Poynyngs in quad- 
rangles ; and an albe, stole, and fanon sewn 
with divers arms in lozenges with purple 
frets. The same inventory mentions a 
vestment of Philip King of France, made, 
quite properly, of blue cloth with fleur-de- 
lis ; and a number of vestments with 
orphreys of the arms of the King of England 
and of France. 

The inventory of the vestry of West- 
minster Abbey taken in 1388 also contains 
some interesting heraldic ornaments, such 
as a frontal with the arms of England and 
France in red and blue velvet woven with 
golden leopards and fleur-de-lis, from the 

burial of King Edward III ; six murrey Heraldic 
carpets woven with the new arms of the Embroi- 
King of England and of the count of 
Hainault (in other words, the quartered 
shield adopted by Edward III in 1340, 
and the arms of his queen, Philippa of 
Hainault) ; four carpets of the arms of the 
earl of Pembroke ; four carpets of red 
colour woven with white shields having 
three red fleurs-de-lis, of the gift of Richard 
Tw\'ford, whose arms the}^ were; five 
black carpets having in the corners shields 
of the arms of St. Peter and St. Edward ; 
two green silk cloths sewn with the arms 
of England, Spain, and Queen Eleanor; a 
bed with a border with the arms of the 
King of Scotland ; three new copes of a 
red colour of noble cloth of gold damask, 
with orphreys of black velvet embroidered 
with the letters T and A and swans of 
pearl, the gift of Thomas duke of Gloucester 
whose wife was Eleanor Bohun, and her 
family badge a white swan ; a cope of red 
velvet with gold leopards and a border of 
blue velvet woven with gold fleurs-de-lis, 
formerly the lord John of Eltham's, whose 
fine alabaster tomb in the abbey church has 
the same arms on his shield. 

A St. Paul's inventory of 1402 also 


contains a few choice examples : a cope of 
red velvet with gold lions and orphre3^s of 
the collars of the duke of Lancaster and a 
stag lying in the middle of each collar; a 
suit of blue cloth of gold powdered with 
gold crowns in each of which are fixed two 
ostrich feathers ; six copes of red cloth of 
gold with blue orphreys with golden- 
hooded falcons and the arms of Queen 
Anne of Bohemia ; three albes and amices 
of linen cloth with orphreys of red velvet 
powdered and worked with little angels 
and the arms of England, given by Queen 
Isabel ; three albes and amices with apparels 
of red cloth of gold powdered with divers 
white letters of S and with golden leopards, 
given by John of Gaunt ; two great cushions 
of silk cloth of blue colour with a white 
cross throughout, and in each quarter of 
the cross the golden head of a lion. 

The secular documents carry on the 

Some quite noteworthy items may be 
found in the account of the expenses of the 
great wardrobe of King Edward III (1345- 
48-9) : for making a bed of blue taffata 
for the King powdered with garters con- 
taining this word botlY fott c] lUal Y 
pcn)C; for making a jupe of blue taffata for 


the King's body with Garters and buckles Heraldic 
and pendants of silver-gilt ; for making 40 Ejnproi- 
clouds for divers of the Kings' garments, 
embroidered with gold, silver, and silk, 
with an £ in the middle of gold, garnished 
with stars throughout the field ; for making 
six pennons for trumpets and clarions 
against Christmas Day of sindon beaten 
with the King's arms quarterly ; for making 
of a bed of red worsted given to the lord 
King by Thomas de Colley powdered with 
silver bottles having tawny bands and cur- 
tains of smdon beaten with white bottles ; 
for making a harness for the lord David 
King of Scotland of 'blu' velvet with a 
pale of red velvet and within the pale 
aforesaid a white rose ; for making a har- 
ness of white bokeram for the King 
stencilled with silver, namely a tunic and 
shield wrought with the King's word hci\ 

bay the iDytbe \voan; b\ aobcs foule 3 

am ih\ man and a crupper, etc. stencilled 
with silver ; for making a doublet for the 
King of white linen cloth having about the 
sleeves and bottom a border of green long 
cloth wrought with clouds and vines of 
gold and with the King's word tt. tS. aS. 
it is. 

In 1380 Edmund Mortimer earl of 



Heraldic March, leaves 'our great bed of black 
Embroi- satin embroidered with white lions (the 
badge of the house of March) and gold 
roses with scutcheons of the arms of 
Mortimer and Ulster'; and in 1385 Joan 
princess of Wales leaves to King Richard 
her son 'my new bed of red velvet em- 
broidered with ostrich feathers and leop- 
ards' heads of gold with branches and 
leaves issuing from their mouths.' 

In 1389 William Pakington archdeacon 
of Canterbury leaves 'my hailing of red 
with a shield of the King's arms in the 
midst and with mine own arms in the 
corners'; and in 1391 Margaret, the wife 
of Sir William Aldeburgh, leaves (i) a red 
hailing with a border of blue with the arms 
of Baliol and Aldeburgh, (ii) a red bed 
embroidered with a tree and recumbent 
lion and the arms of Aldeburgh and 
Tillzolf, and (iii) a green bed embroidered 
with griffins and the arms of Aldeburgh. 

The mventory of Thomas of Woodstock 
duke of Gloucester, taken in 1397, also 
contams some mterestmg items : a white 
hailing (or set of hangings for a hall) con- 
sisting of a dosser and four costers worked 
with the arms of King Edward (his father) 
and his sons with borders pal}^ of red and 

black powdered with Bohun swans and Heraldic 

the arms of Hereford ; a great bed of gold, Embroi- 

, • 1 , , denes 

that IS to say a coverlet, tester, and selour 

of fine blue satin worked with gold Garters, 
and three curtains of tartryn beaten with 
Garters to match ; and a large bed of white 
satm embroidered m the midst with the 
arms of the duke of Gloucester, with his 
helm, in Cyprus gold. 

A number of other items in the list are 
also more or less heraldic : a bed of black 
baudek^^n powdered with white roses ; a 
large old bed of green tartryn embroidered 
with gold griffins ; twelve pieces of tapestry 
carpet, blue with white roses in the corners 
and divers arms : a large bed of blue 
baudekyn embroidered with silver owls and 
gold fleurs-de-lis ; fifteen pieces of tapestry 
for two rooms of red worsted embroidered 
with blue Garters of worsted with helms 
and arms of divers sorts ; three curtains of 
white tartryn with green popinjays; a 
green bed of double samite with a blue 
pale (stripe) of chamlet embroidered with 
a pot of gold filled with divers flowers of 
silver; an old bed of blue worsted embroi- 
dered with a stag of yellow worsted ; a red 
bed of worsted embroidered with a crowned 
lion and two griffins and chaplets and roses ; 

Heraldic a bed of blue worsted embroidered with a 
Embroi- white eagle ; a coverlet and tester of red 
worsted embroidered with a white lion 
couchmg under a tree ; a smgle gown of 
blue cloth of gold of CVprus powdered 
with gold stags ; and a single gown of red 
cloth of gold of Qyprus with mermaids. 

In 1 381 William lord Latimer leaves 
^an entire vestment or suit of red velvet 
embroidered with a cross of mine arms,' 
and in 1397 Sir Ralph Hastings bequeathed 
*a vestment of red cloth of gold with 
orphreys before and behind ensigned with 
maunches and with colours of mine arms,' 
which were a red maunch or sleeve on a 
gold ground. 

Among the chapel stuff of Henry Bowet 
archbishop of York, in 1423, were a sudary 
or veil of white cloth with the arms of the 
duke of Lancaster on the ends, and two 
costers or curtains of red embroidered with 
great white roses and the arms of St. Peter 
(the crossed keys). 

In 1437 Helen Welles of York be- 
queathed a blue tester with a couched stag 
and the reason Auxiliuvi meum a Dornino. 

In 1448 Thomas Morton, a canon of 
York, left a hailing with two costers of 
green and red say paled with the arms of 


archbishop Bowet ; and in 1449 the in- Heraldic 
ventoiy of Dan John Clerk, a York Embroi- 
chaplain, mentions two covers of red say- 
having the arms of Dan Richard Scrope 
and the keys of St. Peter worked upon 

To the examples worked with letters 
may be added a bed with a carpet of red 
and green with crowned M's, left about 
1440 by a Beverley mason, who also had 
another bed with a carpet of blue and green 
with Katharine wheels ; a vestment left in 
1467, by Robert Est, a chantry priest in 
York Minster, of green worsted having 
on the back two crowned letters, namely 
R and E; and a bequest in 1520 by 
Thomas duke of Norfolk of 'our great 
hangede bedde palyd with cloth of golde 
whyte damask and black velvet, and 
browdered with these two letters T. A.,' 
being the initials of himself and his wife. 

There is of course nothing to hinder at 
the present day the principles embodied in 
the foregoing examples, which could easily 
be extended ad infinitum y from being carried 
out m the same delightful way ; and a small 
exercise of ingenuity would soon devise a 
like treatment of one's own arms, or the 
use of a favourite device or flower, or the 


setting out of the family word, reason, or 

The medieval passion for striped, paned, 
or checkered hangings might also be 
revived with advantage, and the mention 
in 1 391 of 'a bed of white and murre}^ 
unded,' shows that waved lines were as 
tolerable as straight. 




Decorative Heraldry of the Reign of Henry 
VHI ; The Decadent Change in the QuaHty of 
Heraldry; Examples of Elaborated Arms ; Sur- 
vival of Tradition in Heraldic Art ; Elizabethan 
Heraldry ; Heraldry in the Seventeenth Century 
and llnder the Commonwealth ; Post-Restora- 
tion Heraldry. 

In the foregoing chapters practically noth- 
ing has been said or any illustration given of 
heraldry later than the reign of Henry VIII 
chiefly because little that is artistic can 
be found afterwards. There are however 
certain points about both Elizabethan and 
Stewart heraldry that are worthy of notice, 
especially when the old traditions have been 

In the second quarter of the sixteenth 
century decorative heraldry may be said to 
have reached its climax, and such examples 
as can be seen at Hengrave Hall, Hampton 
Court, Athelhampton House, Cowdray 
House, St. George's chapel in Windsor 
Castle, King's College chapel at Cambridge, 


Tudor and and Henry VI Fs Lady chapel at West- 
later minster, or in the beautiful panel of 
Henry VHI's arms at New Hall in Essex 
(fig. 189), are quite the finest of their kind. 
Then comes a falling off, and though spora- 
dic cases in continuation of tradition may 
be found, with the advent of the Renais- 
sance English heraldry underwent a com- 
plete change. 

One of the most notable differences 
between the older and the later heraldry is 
in the quality of the heraldry itself. 

In the days when men devised arms for 
themselves these were characterized by a 
simplicity that held its own all through the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries and 
well down into the fifteenth century. But 
following upon a privilege that had hitherto 
been exercised by the King as a mark of 
special honour, and in some rare cases even 
by nobles, the heralds than began to assign 
arms to such of the newly-rich who came 
to the front after the Wars of the Roses 
and were willing to pay for them. Hence- 
forth the artistic aspect of heraldry entered 
upon a continuous decadent course. 

The beginning is visible in the extra- 
ordinary compositions devised and granted 
to all sorts and conditions of men during 


^ i i 

. :Mh mm^W^ hit iUmt SXx. 

Fig. 189. Carved panel with the crowned arms, supporters, and 
badges of King Henry VIII at New Hall in Essex, 

Tudor and the reign of Henry VIII. Such arms as 
^^^fT had been granted by Henry VI or Ed- 
ward IV, or even by the kings-of-arms in 
the fifteenth century, still followed ancient 

Fig. 190. Paving tile with arms and initials of 
John Lyte {c. 1535), from Marten church, 

precedent, but the Tudor members of the 
newly incorporated Heralds' College seem 
to have struck out a hne for themselves. 

A notable example is furnished by the 
arms devised for cardinal Thomas Wulcy. 
These, in token of his Suffolk or 'gin, have 


for basis the engrailed cross upon a sable Tudor and 
field of the UfFords (to whom he was not tt'^S^I 
related), charged with the leopards' heads 
of the de la Poles and a lion passant (per- 
haps for England) ; to which is added a 
gold chief, with a red Lancastrian rose and 
two of the Cornish choughs from the post- 
humous arms of St. Thomas of Canterbury 
in allusion to his Christian name ! 

The arms granted by Christopher Barker, 
Garter, in 1536 to the city of Gloucester 
afford another example. They consist of the 
sword of state of the city, with the sword- 
bearer's cap on the point, set upright on a 
gold pale, and flanked on either side by a 
silver horseshoe and a triad of horsenails 
on a green field ; there is also (as in Wulcy's 
arms) a chief party gold and purple, with 
the silver boar's head of Richard III (who 
granted a charter to the city) between the 
halves of a Lancastrian red rose and of a 
Yorkist white rose, each dimidiated with a 
golden sun ! 

A reference to Bedford's Blazon of Epis- 
copacy will show that the arms of a con- 
siderable number of the bishops appointed 
during the reigns of Henry VIII and 
Edward VI were characterized by over- 
charged chiefs like those just described, 


Tudor and and these may be taken as typical of the 
later arms then being granted by the kings-of- 
arms. The same passion for crowding the 
shield is seen even in many of the less 
elaborate arms that were occasionally 

Things did not improve under Mary and 
Elizabeth. Simple arms continued to be 
issued from the College, but mixed with 
such extravagant bursts as that of Laurence 
Dalton, Norroy, who granted in January, 
1 560-1 to the famous physician doctor 
John Caius these arms : 

Golde semyd w^^' flowre gentle in the 
myddle of the cheyfe, sengrene resting 
uppon the heades of ij serpentes in pale, 
their tayles knytte to gether, all in proper 
color, resting uppon a square marble stone 
vert, betwene theire brestes a boke sable, 
garnyshed gewles, buckles gold, and to 
his crest upon thelme a Dove argent, 
bekyd & membred gewles, holding in 
his beke by the stalke, flowre gentle in 
propre color, stalked verte, set on a 
wreth golde & gewles. 

This precious composition is further de- 
scribed m the grant as 

betokening by the boke lerning : by the Tudor and 
ij serpentes resting upon the square u f^ 
marble stone, wisdom with grace founded 
& stayed upon vertues stable stone : by 
sengrene & flower gentle, immortality 
y^ never shall fade, etc. 

The way in which matters went from bad 
to worse is shown by the case of the Com- 
pany of 'Barbours & Chirurgeons' of 
London, to whom had been granted in 1561 

paly argent and vert, on a pale gules a 
lyon passant gardant golde betweene two 
Spatters argent on eche a double rose 
gules and argent crowned golde. 

The united genius of Garter, Clarencieux, 
and Norroy 'improved' these arms in 
1569 into : 

Quarterly the first sables a Cheveron 
betweene three flewmes argent : the 
second quarter per pale argent and vert 
on a Spatter of the first, a double Rose 
gules and argent crowned golde : the 
third quarter as the seconde and the 
fourth as the first : Over all on a Crosse 
gules a lyon passant gardant golde. 

Such compositions as these could not but 

Y 337 

Tudor and fail to bring heraldry into contempt, and 
^'^'^^'J men soon ceased to revel in and play with 
it in the same delightful way as before. 
Here and there, as in Sir Thomas Tresham's 
market house at Rothwell, or in Sir Henry 
Stafford's great mansion of Kirby Hall, 
tradition has been held fast, and play is 
made upon the former with the Tresham 
trefoils, and in the latter with Stafford 
knots and with crests treated as badges in 
quite the old style. At Kirby Hall, despite 
its date (i 572-75), and at Cadhay in Devon, 
sitting figures of beasts with shields of arms 
were set upon the gables, and at Kirby upon 
the pinnacles that surmounted the pilasters 
about the court. A good panel with the 
arms and badge apparently of Sir John 
Guldeford, ob. 1565, is to be seen in East 
Guldeford church, Sussex (fig. 191). 

A remarkably fine specimen of Eliza- 
bethan heraldic decoration is also to be 
seen in the great chamber of Gilling castle, 
Yorks., as finished by Sir William Fairfax 
about 1585. Here the beautiful inlaid 
wall-panelling is surmounted b}^ a frieze 
nearly four feet deep, painted with hunting 
scenes and a series of large trees, upon 
which are hung according to wapentakes 
the shields of arms of Yorkshire gentlefolk. 


The cliimney piece displays the armorial Tudor and 
ensigns of the builder, with those of his tt f'j 
Queen above, and four other shields, and 

Fig. 191. Arms, with crested helm and badge 
(a blazing ragged-staff of, apparently. Sir 
John Guldeford of Benenden, ob. 1565, in 
East Guldeford church, Sussex. 

between the frettings of the plaster ceiling 
are the Fairfax lions and goats, and the 
Stapleton talbot. The rich effect of the 


whole IS completed b}" the contemporary 
heraldic glazing with which the windows 
happily are filled. 

But m Elizabethan buildings generally, 
heraldry made but a poor show. Sup- 
porters and other creatures had descended 
from the gables to stand or squat upon 
gateposts, and occasionally a square panel 
filled with heraldr}^ was inset above a 
doorway or a porch ; or the family crest, 
divorced from its helm, was carved upon 
the spandrels of the entrance. But the 
former glor}^ had disappeared, and shields 
of arms were often replaced by initials and 
dates of owners and builders, presumably 
because they were 'non-armigerous per- 

Within doors matters were somewhat 
better. Such gorgeous rooms as the great 
chamber at Gilling were quite exceptional, 
and heraldic display was usually confined 
to the elaborately carved overmantels of 
the chimne3^s, which served as a frame for 
the family arms and crested helm with 
grand flourishing of mantlings. These 
were often repeated upon the cast-iron fire- 
backs. The art of the plasterer was ex- 
tended to the inclusion of crests and other 
devices among tlie ornaments of the 


moulded ceilings, and the glazier continued Tudor and 
to fill the windows with beautiful coloured rj'^^f'J 
shields of alliances. Occasionally too the 
family arms were woven into carpets or 
table covers ; or embroidered by the ladies 
of the house on the hangings of the state 
bed, within charming wreaths of flowers 
copied from those in the garden (fig. 192). 

The monuments of the dead continue as 
before to be adorned with heraldry, but in 
a different way, and for the beautiful simple 
arms and devices of the medieval memorial 
began to be substituted the concentrated 
shield of the family quarterings, with crest 
and mantled helm, and such supporters as 
the College of Arms allowed or approved. 

Despite the inevitable consequent for- 
mality, there is often much that is good 
about the treatment of Elizabethan and 
Jacobean heraldry, and it would not be 
easy, even at an earlier date, to beat the , 
delightful lions upon the shields on the 
Lennox tomb at Westminster (fig. 194), or 
to fill up more satisfactorily a shield like 
that above the monument of Sir Ralph 
Pecksall (fig. 195). The eflFective way in 
which the shield itself is treated in this case 
is also praiseworthy, and both shields are 
models of heraldic carving in low relief. 


Fig. 192. Part of a bed-hanging embroidered with the arms 
of Henry and Elizabeth Wentworth, c. 1560, formerly in 
the possession of Sir A. W. Franks, K.C.B. 

The Lennox and Pecksall shields are Tudor and 

likewise indicative of another characteristic .T^^^f'i 

, 11- -11 • Heraldry 

change, the desire to illustrate ancient 

descent by the. multiplication of quarter- 

ings. The disastrous consequences of this 

practice, even in the fourteenth and 

Fig. 193. Arms of Cotes, from a 
mazer print of 1585-6. 

fifteenth centuries, have already been 
pointed out, but in the reign of Elizabeth 
it was carved to such an excess as to pro- 
duce at times a mere patchwork of carved 
or painted quarters, in which the beauty of 
the heraldry was entirely lost. In the 
great hall of Fawsley House, Northants, 
there hangs a coloured achievement of the 
Knightley family containing actually 334 


Fig, 194. Shield from the tomb of Margaret countess 
of Lennox, ob. 1578, in Westminster abbey church. 

Fig. 195. Achievement of arms from the monument of 
Sir Richard Pecksall, ob. 1571, in Westminster abbey 

Tudor and quarterings, which have been rightly 

„'^^f^ described by Mr. T. A. Gotch as '^^o too 
Heraldry r T ■ rr » 

many tor decorative eitect. 

The heraldry of the seventeenth century 
is in general but a duller version of that of 
the later sixteenth century, with a tendenc}' 
to become more commonplace as time 
goes on. 

Under the Commonwealth ever}^ vestige 
of regality was ordered to be put down 
and done away ; a very large number of 
representations of the royal arms were de- 
faced and destroyed ; and the leopards of 
England were for a time 'driven into the 
wilderness' along with the lion of Scotland. 
It was nevertheless thought desirable that 
the United Kingdom should still have arms 
and on the great seale of England/ 


BLESSING RESTORED, that is 1648, the cross 
of St. George appears for England, and a 
harp for Ireland. The royal crown was at 
the same time superseded, on all maces 
and other sA'mbols of kingly power, b}' an- 
other which curiously reproduces all its 
elements. It had a circlet inscribed the 


RESTORED, with the date, and for the crest- 
ing of crosses and fleurs-de-lis there was 

substituted an intertwined cable enclosing 1 udor and 
small cartouches with the cross of St. tt f'J 
George and the Irish harp. The new 
crown was also arched over, with four 
graceful incurved members like ostrich 
feathers, but wrought with oak leaves and 
acorns. These supported a pyramidal 
group of four handsome cartouches with 
the cross and harp surrounded b\" an acorn, 
instead of the orb and cross.* Perfect 
examples of this singular republican crown 
still surmount the two maces of the town 
of Weymouth. 

On the obverse of the new great seal of 
the Comimonwealth, designed and engraved 
by Simon and first used in 1655, the field 
is filled with an heraldic achievement of 
some interest (fig. 196). This includes a 
shield w4th the cross of St. George in the 
first and fourth quarters, St. Andrew's cross 
in the second quarter, and the Irish harp in 
the third quarter, with the lion of Cromwell 
on the scutcheon of pretence. This shield of 
the State's arms is supported by a lion with 
a royal crown on his head, and by a dragon, 

* A curious variant of this crown, with a jewelled 
instead of an inscribed band, heads a drawing of the 
city arms of the date 165 1 in the Dormant Book of 
the corporation of Carlisle. 


Fig. 196. Obverse of the Great Seal of the RepubHc 
of England, Scotland, and Ireland, 16550 

Fig. 197. Arms, etc. of the Trinity House, London. From a wood 
carving c. 1670 in the Victoria and Albert Museum. 

Tudor and standing upon the edge of a ribbon with 

later ^|^g mOttO PAX QV^RITVR BELLO, and is 

surmounted by a front-faced helm with 
much flourished manthng, with a ro3^al 
crown and the crowned leopard crest above, 
set athwart the helm. 

The seal furnishes an excellent illustra- 
tion of the heraldic art of the period, but 
it is singular that under a Nonconformist 
domination the arms selected for England 
and Scotland should consist of the crosses 
of their patron saints. It is also interest- 
ing to note that the expunged arms of 
England and Scotland had evidently been 
regarded rightly as personal to the 
murdered King. A further curious point 
is the reappearance on the seal of the royal 
crown of England above the helm and on 
the leopard crest and the lion supporter. 

On the reverse of the seal just noted 
the State's new arms are repeated on a 
cartouche behind the equestrian figure of 
the Protector. 

Of the heraldry of the Restoration and 
later it is hardly necessary to make men- 
tion, so lifeless and dull is the generality 
of it. A good specimen c. 1670 with the 
arms of the Trinity House (fig. 197), 
and a later one (fig. 198) with the arms, 


etc. of the Trevor family, are to be Tudor and 
seen in the Victoria and Albert Museum, ^t^^^u 
Reference is due, too, to one other notable ^^^ ^^ 

Fig. 198. Limewood carving with the arms and crest of 
the Trevor family, c. 1700, in the Victoria and Albert 


1':^^. .vv- ''^''1 >'' 'li*-' carved oak ceiling of the chapel, 
formerly the hall, of Auckland castle, Durham, with 
the arms of bishop John Cosin. Date, 1662-4. 

example. This is the beautiful panelled Tudor and 

ceiling set up over the chapel (formerly the rr'^^f'S 

great hall) of Auckland castle, b}^ doctor 

John Cosin bishop of Durham (fig. 199). 

It was in making from 1662 to 1664, by 

a local carpenter, and consists for the most 

part of a series of square panels containing 

alternately the cross and four lions that 

form the arms of the bishopric of Durham, 

and the fret forming the arms of Cosin. 

In the middle bay the bishops' arms are 

given in an oval, and flanked by similar 

ovals with the eagle of St. John in allusion 

to his name. No earlier wooden ceiling 

could be finer in conception, and the eff^ect 

of the whole was originally enhanced by 

colour and gilding, but this was most 

unhappily removed by order of bishop 

Harrington (1791-1826). 

With so notable a late survival of 
medieval tradition this book may fitly end. 



The following series of illustrations is an attempt 
to gather up into chronological order such of the 
more typical examples in this book as serve to 
show the development and various applications of 
heraldic art from the thirteenth to the eighteenth 
century. The series could, of course, have been 
extended indefinitely, but the present collection is 
probably sufficient for its purpose. 

c- I2SS 

c. 1259 

Tiles c. 1255 from the chapter-house and shield c. 1259 
from the quire aisle of Westminster Abbey. 


Shields f. 1259 from the quire aisles of Westminster abbey 



Quartered shield of Queen Eleanor of Castile, from her 
tomb at Westminster, 1291. 


Seals from the Barons' Letter of 1301 of (i) Hugh 
Bardolf and (2) Henry Percy. 


Diapered shield from the monuiiu'iit of the lady 
Eleanor Percy {ob. 1337) in Bev^erley Minster. 


Diapered shield from the monument of the lady 
Eleanor Percy {ob. 1337) in Beverley Minster. 


Shield of the arms of Sir Humphrey Littlebury, from his 
effigy at Holbeach in Lincohishire; c. 1360. 



Shield modelled in boiled leather, from the tomb of 
Edward prince of Wales, ob. 1376, at Canterbury. 


Shield and crested helm with simple mantling from 
a brass at Southacre, Norfolk, 1384. 


Stall-plate of Ralph lord Bassett, 1390, showing simple form of 


Shields with lions from (i) Felbrigge, Norfolk, 
c. 1380, and (2) from Spilsby, Lines, 1391. 






Seal of Richard Beauchamp earl of Warwick, in 1403, and early- 
fifteenth century heraldic tiles from Tewkesbury abbey church. 




Part of the chancel arcade in Wingfield church, Suffolk, with badges of 
Michael de la Pole earl of Suffolk, ob. 141 5, and his wife Katherine 








Stall-plate of Walter lord Hungerford, after 1426. 



Stall-plate of Humphrey duke of Buckingham as 
Earl of Stafford, c. 1429. 


Tomb of Lewis Robsart lord Bourchier, ob. 143 1, in 
Westminster abbey church. 



Banner stall-plate of Richard Nevill earl of Salisbury, c. 1436. 


Banner stall-plate of Sir John Grey of Ruthin, c. 1439. 




-^ i^ii^mmm m mmmr i' V 

Spandrel of the tomb of Oliver Groos, Esq., ob. 1439, in Sloley 
church, Norfolk. 


Print from a mazer at All Souls college, Oxford, 
c. 1450, and shield from a brass at Stanford 
Dingley, Berks, 1444. 


Seals of Edmund duke of Somerset, c. 
John Tiptoft earl of Worcester, 





Seal of Cecily Nevill, wife of Richard duke of York and 
mother of King Edward IV, 1461. 


c. 1500 

c. 1476 
Shields from the chantry chapel of Thomas 
Ramryge abbot of St. Albans, c. 1500, and 
from a brass at Stoke Poges, Bucks, 1476. 


Oriel window in the deanery at Wells, with badges of King 
Edward IV and rebuses of Dean Gunthorpe, c. 1475-80- 

2 3 




*a«im.n' -w ft 



:.v *. . A 



Heraldic candle-hoider, etc. from the bronze grate about 
the tomb of King Henry VH at Westminster. 


Bronze door with York and Beaufort badges from Henry 
VII's chapel at Westminster- 


Crowned arms and sujiporiers of Kinir Henry \ II 
in King's college chapel at Cambridge. 


, -^ 

Carved panel with the crowned arms, supporters, and badges 
of King Henry VIII at New Hall, Essex. 


Gatehouse of Christ's ct>lh'ye al Cambridge built by the 
lady Margaret Beaufort after 1505. 





Paving tile, c. 1535, from Marten ch\irch, Wilts; 
and shield of St. George in the Garter from the 
brass of Thomas earl of Wiltshire and Ormond, 
1538, at Hever in Kent. 


Lozenge of arms from the monument at Westminster 
of Frances Brandon duchess of Suffolk, ob. 1559. 


Part of an embroidered bed-hanging, c. 1560. 


Arms, with crested helm and badge of 
(apparently) Sir John Guldeford of 
Benenden, ob. 1565, in East Guldeford 
church, Sussex. 



AriUfjiial cnsi<,'ns truin the monument of Sir Richard 
Pecksall, ob. 1571, in Westminster abbey church. 


Shield from the tomb of Margaret countess of Lennox, 
ob. 1578, in Westminster abbey church. 


Obverse of the Great Seal ni lin ix . , i, of England, Scotland, and 
Ireland, 1655. 



^-.^^ ^. 

Part of the carved oak ceiling of the chapel of xAuck- 
land castle, Durham, with the arms of bishop John 
Cosin. Date, 1662-4. 


Arms, etc. of the Trinity House, London. From a wood carving 
c. 1670 in the Victoria and Albert Museum. 


Limewood carving with the arms and crest of the Trevor 
family, 1700, in the Victoria and Albert Museum. 




Academy, Royal, heraldry at 

exhibitions, 33 
Acton church (Suffolk), brass in, 

Africa, South, 269 
Albans, Saint, 54, 164, 259, 281 ; 

abbey church of, 73, 74 
Albemarle, Richard earl of, see 

Beauchamp ; William earl of, 

see Forz 
Albert Medal for Bravery, 265 
Aldeburgh arms, 326 
Aldeburgh, Margaret, 326; Sir 

William, 326 
Alderby, John of, bp. of Lincoln, 

Aldermaston (Berks), 306 
Alen, Sir John, 307, 308 
Alexandra, Queen, banner of, 

Alexandria, rubies of, 275, 290 
Alnwick, William, bp. of Nor- 
wich, 264 
Andrew, saint, cross or saltire 

of, 40, 225, 248, 249 
Angouleme, arms of, 119 
Anne of Bohemia, Queen, 89, 

172, 185, 324 
Anstis, John, 309 
Anthony, cross of saint, 50 
Antiquaries, Society of, 233 
Aquitaine, duchy of, 154 
Arms, rolls of, 62 
Arundel (Sussex), effigy at, 277, 


Arundel, Beatrice countess of, 
278 ; Edmund earl of, see Fitz- 
Alan ; Joan countess of, 279, 
280; Richard earl o{,see Fitz- 
Alan; Thomas earl of, 273, 
277; Sir Edmund of, 118; Sir 
William, 144, 145; William 
earl of, see FitzAlan 

Ashmole, Elias, 224 

Astley, Sir John, 131 

Aston (Warw), effigy at, 305 

Athelhampton House (Dorset), 

Auckland castle (Durham), 

ceiling in, 352, 353 
Aveline, countess of Lancaster, 


Badges, 165-184 

Badlesmere, Bartholomew, 117; 

Maud, 117, 118 
Baliol arms, 326 
Ballard arms, 61 
Banastre, Sir Thopias, 141 
Banner, the King's, 219, 220, 

226, 227, 228 
Banners of arms, 216, 217, 219- 

Bar, the, 40 
Barbours and Chirurgeons, 

Company of, 337 
Bardolf, Hugh, seal of, 68; 

William lord, see Phelip 
Baret, John, 303 
Barker,Christopher, Garter, 335 


Index Bai"ons' Letter of 1 300-1, 49, 
68, 69, 77, 82, 112, 113, 124, 
125, 126, 172, 181, 195 
Barre, Henry count of, 113; 

Joan dau, of, 113 
Harrington, bishop, 353 
Barron, Mr. Oswald, 52 
Barrv, 43 ; number of bars, 

Bartholomew, hospital of Saint, 
arms, 48 

Basing House (Hants), 285 

Bassett, Ralph lord, 112, 140, 

Baston, the, 44 

Bath, collar of the, 293 ; Order 
of the, 253 

Bath and Wells, Thomas bp. of, 
see Beckington 

Batour, John, 199 

Battled, 45 

Baunton (Glos), frontal at, 320 

Bayeux, seal for town of, 205, 

Beatrice countess of Arundel, 

Beauchamp arms, 51, 58, 63, 
97 ;_ badges, 58, 96, 184; 
family, 103 

Beauchamp, Henry, earl of 
Warwick, 272 ; John, of 
Hacche, 197; Margaret, 96, 
214; Richard, earl of War- 
wick and Albemarle, 61, 96, 
144, 146, 204, 208, 209, 214, 
221, 274, 276; Thomas, earl 
of Warwick, 175, 198 

Beaufort, Edmund, duke of 
Somerset, 205, 210; Henry, 
bp. of Winchester, 164 ; Joan, 
countessofWestmorland, 278, 
282; John, duke of Somerset 
and earl of Kendal, 206, 231 ; 


the lady Margaret, 184, 209, 
Beaufort portcullis, 169, 288, 

Beaumont, John lord, 141 ; 

Margaret, 217 
Beckington, Thomas, bp. of 

Bath and Wells, rebus of, 188, 

Bedale (Yorks), effigy at, 73 
Bedford, Jasper, duke of, see 

Bedford, John duke of, see 

Bedford's Blazon of Episcopacy, 

Bek, Antony, bp. of Durham, 

arms of, 50 
Bend, the, 40, 41 ; Bendy, 44 
Benenden (Kent), 339 
Bensted arms, 114 
Bensted, Sir John, 114; Parnell, 

Bentley,Little (Essex), brass at, 

Berkeley arms, 51, 63; badge, 

184; mermaid collar, 310, 

Berkeley, Thomas of, 125; 

Thomas lord, 309, 310 
Bermingham, Walter, 117 
Berners arms, 97 
Beverley (Yorks), 329; waits' 

collars, 313 
Beverley minster, heraldry in, 

54, 106, 107, 108 
Bigod, Sir John, 299 
Boar, silver, of King Richard 

HI, 304 
Bohemia, Anne of, see Anne 
Bohun, Eleanor, 172, 214, 323; 

Humphrey, earl of Hereford 

and EsseXj 172, 193, 194, 196, 

274; John de, earl of Here- 
ford, 115 ; Mary, 92, 172, 298 

Bohunof Hereford, arms of, 
96; of Northampton, arms 
of, 96 

Bohun swan badge, 172, 184, 
196, 214, 298, 327 

Bordeaux, John seneschal of, 
see Nevill 

Border, the, 41 

Boroughbridge Roll, 62 

Botreaux, Margaret lady of, see 
Hungerford; William lord, 
203, 217 

Boughton-under-Blean (Kent) 
brass at, 81 

Bourchier arms, the, 97; knot, 
184-186, 188; water-bougets, 

Bourchier, Henry, earl of Essex, 
188; Henry lord, 158; Hugh 
lord, see Stafford; John lord, 
143, 158; Lewis lord, see 
Robsart; Sir Humphrey, 97, 
186; Thomas, abp. of Canter- 
bury, 186 

Boutell, Rev. C, 157 

Bowet, Henry, abp. of York, 
328, 329 

Brabant, arms of, 119 

Brancepeth (Durham), efhgies 
at, 304 

Brandon, Frances, duchess of 
Suffolk, no 

Braose, William de, 112 

Bristol waits' collars, 313 

British Museum, 53, 261, 262, 

Bromfleet, Sir Thomas, arms 

of, 82 
Brooke, George, lord Cobham, 

Broom-cods, collar of, 309 

Brotherton, see Thomas 
Bryen, arms of, 252 
Bryen, Guy lord, 73, 74, 196 
Buch, the Captal de, 141 
Buckingham, duke and earl of, 

see Stafford; Henry duke of, 

96, 98 
Buckingham, earldom of, arms 

of, 96 
Buckingham Palace, memorial 

in front of, 34 
Bullen, Thomas, earl of Wilt- 
shire and Ormond, 267 
Bures, arms of, 252 
Burgh, John of, 114; Sir 

Thomas, stall-plate of, 136: 

William of, earl of Ulster, 

117, 119 
Burghersh, barony of, 200; Sir 

Bartholomew, 198 
Burlington House, see London 
Burnell, Hugh lord, 141, 149 
Burnham Thorpe (Norfolk), 

brass at, 296 
Burton, Thomas, bp. of Exeter, 

Bury St. Edmunds, St. Mary's 

church at, 303 

Cadhay (Devon), 338 
Caius, doctor John, 336 
Calais, arms of, 215 : seal of 

mayoralt)^ of, 214, 215 
Calthorpe, Sir William, 296 
Cambridge, arms of regius pro- 
fessors, 253 ; rebus on name, 
Cambridge, Christ's college, 
179, 286, 287, 288; King's 
college chapel, 170, 181, 210, 
213, 331; Pembroke college, 
252; St. John's college, 181, 
. 288, 289 


Index Camoys, lady, brass of, 296; 

Thomas lord, 261, 263; 

arms of, 264 
Candle-holder, heraldic, 55 
Canterbury, 61, 84, loi, 102, 

132, 134, 166, 167, 168, 186, 

260, 270, 271, 290, 291, 300, 

303, 335 
Canterbury, Christchurch, 120, 

Canterbury, John abp. of, see 
Morton ; Thomas abp. of, see 
Bourchier; William abp. of, 
see Courtenay ; William 
archdn. of, see Pakington 
Cap of estate, the, 154 
Carlisle Dormant book, 347 
Carnarvon, Edward of, in 
Castile, arms of, 86, in; castle 

of, 114; kingdom of, 112 
Castile and Leon, castles and 

lions of, 114 
Chamberlayne, Sir William, 158 
Charles IV, Emperor, 89 
Chaucer, Geoffrey, arms of, 48 
Cha worth, arms of, 117 
Checkendon (Oxon), brass at, 

Checky,44 ; numberof checkers, 


Chester, arms of, 135; sheriff's 
chain, 315 

Chester, Edward earl of, see 
Edward prince of Wales 

Chevaler au cing, 171 

Cheveron, the, 41, 42 

Cheyney, Sir John, 306 

Chief, the, 41, 42 

Chipping Campden (Glos), 
brass at, 90 

Chronological series of illus- 
trations, 354-407 

Cinque Ports, arms of the, 135 


Clare arms, 114, 115, 117, 199; 
black bulls of, 204,207; label 
of, lOI 
Clare, Elizabeth de, 114; Gil- 
bert de, earl of Gloucester, 
114, 194 
Clarence, duke of, see Lionel; 
George duke of, see George; 
Thomas duke of, see Thomas 
Clehonger (Heref), 76 
Clerk, Dan John, 329 
Clifford, Robert de, 171 
Clopton arms, 45, 46 
Clun, arms of, 106 
Cobham (Kent), 133, 134 
Cobham, George Brooke, lord, 
133, 134; Raynald, lord, 
Cockermouth, Henry Percy, lord 

of, see Percy 
Colchester, arms of, 50 
College of Arms, see Heralds' 

Colley, Thomas de, 325 
Constance, brass at, 263, 265 
Constance of Castile, in 
Corfe castle, Dorset, 69 
Cornwall, earl of, see Richard; 
Edmund earl of, 194; Edward 
duke of, see Edward prince of 
Coronets, introduction and his- 
tory of, 271-285 
Cosin arms, 353 
Cosin, John, bp. of Durham, 

352, 353 
Cotes, arms of, 343 
Cotises, 45 
Counter-coloured, 48 
Courtenay dolphin, 182 
Courtenay, Hugh, earl of 
Devon, 116; Peter, bp. of 
Exeter, 175, 177; Sir Peter, 

229; William, abp. of Can- 
terbury, 162 

Coventry cross, 242 

Cowdray House, Sussex, 239, 

Crests, origin and treatment of, 

123 ; use of, by bishops, 161- 

Cromwell lion, 347 
Cromwell, Ralph lord, 57 
Cross, the, 40; varieties of, 49, 

Crosslets, 51 

Crowns, heraldic, 148-153 
Crusily, 51 
Cyprus gold, 327, 328 

D'Abernoun, Sir John, 235 
DabrichecourtjSir Sanchet, 140, 

Dalton, Laurence, Norroy, 336 
D'Amory, Roger lord, 114 
Daunce, the, 45 
David, King of Scotland, 325 
Dennington (Suffolk), 60, 297 
Derby, Henry earl of, see Henry ; 

Thomas earl of, see Stanley 
Despenser arms, 63, 88 
Despenser, Henry le, bp. of 

Norwich, 161, 162; Richard 

lord,j-^i?Beauchamp ; Thomas 

lord, 199 
Devon, Hugh earl of, see Court- 

Deynelay, Robert, 129 
Diapering, 105-108 
Differencing of arms, 98-103 
Dimidiation, 251 
Dorking, Rev. E. E., rebus of, 

Dorset (county of), 59 
Dover (Kent), arms of, 135 
Dreux arms, 119 

Dublin, Richard marquess of, J^deX 

see Oxford 
Durham, arms of bishopric of, 

353 ; bishops of, 163 
Durham, Cuthbert bp. of, see 

Tunstall; John bp. of, see 

Cosin, Fordham ; Robert bp. 

of, see Nevill ; Thomas bp. 

of, see Hatfield, Langley; 

Walter bp. of, see Skirlaw 

Easton, Little (Essex), 188 
Edmund earl of Kent, 99; earl 

of Lancaster, 100 
Edmund of Langley duke of 

York, 94, loi, 150, 155, 167, 

199, 206, 229 
Edmund, saint, arms of, 150 
Edward I, King, 86, 99, 100, loi, 

113, 114, 237 
Edward H, King, 47, 86, 99, 

115, 291, 293 
Edward HI, King, 61, 88, 92, 

loi, 125, 154, 155, 214, 215, 

263, 272, 323, 324, 325, 326 
Edward IV, King, 75, 168, 190, 

208, 212, 222, 225, 291, 304, 


Edward V, King, 200 

Edward VI, King, 272, 335 

Edward prince of Wales, 61, 84, 
99, loi, 102, 132, 134, 15s, 
166, 167, 260, 261, 262, 271 

Edward, saint, arms of, 37, 50, 

89, 94, 323 
Eleanor, daughter of King 

Edward I, 113 
Eleanor of Castile, Queen, 71, 

86, 91, 113, 114, 170, 270, 323 
Elizabeth, Queen, 224, 225, 336 
Elsefield, Elizabeth, 118; Sir 

Gilbert, 118 
Elsing (Norf), brass at, 100, 157 


Index Eltham, John of, see John 

Embroideries, heraldic, 3 19-330 

Engayn, John, 127 

England, 59,248, 249,335 ; arms 

of, 88, 89, 99, III, 113, 

115, 350; leopards of, 217, 

226, 346; lion supporter of, 

England, King of, 79, 322, 323 ; 

supporters of, 206 
Engrailing, 44 
Erdington family, knight of, 

305, 312 
Ermine, 39, 258 
Erpingham, Sir Thomas, 144 
Essex, earl of, see Stafford 

Humphrey; Henry earl of, 

see Bourchier; Humphrey 

earl of, see Bohun 
Essex, earldom of, arms of, 193 
Est, Robert, 329 
Esturmy, Henry, see Sturmy 
Etchingham church (Sussex), 

239, 240 
Etchingham, Sir William, 239 
Eton College arms, 47 
Ewelme (Oxon), effigy at, 283, 

Exeter, bishop's palace at, 175, 

177; brass at, 185; sheriff's 

chain, 312; waits' collars, 3 13, 


Exeter,duchess of, 283 ; Edward 
bp. of, see Stafford ; Peter 
bishop of, 321 ; Peter bp. of, 
see Courtenay; Thomas bp.of, 
see Burton ; Thomas duke of, 
see Holand ; Thomas duke of, 
see Thomas 

Fairfax lions and goats, 339 
Fairfax, Sir William, 338 
Falstaff, Sir John, 203 


Farnham, Sir Robert, arms of, 

Fauconberg, William lord, 229 
Fawsley House (Northants), 


Felbrigge (Norf), brass at, 78, 

Felbrigge, Sir Simon, 158, 160 

Fer-de-moline, 47, 50 

Ferrers, Thomas earl, see 
Thomas; William de, 197 

Fesse, the, 40 

Fetterlock-and-falcon badge, 
168, 169 

Firedogs, heraldic, 56 

FitzAlan, Alice, 273, 274; 
Brian, arms, 73 ; Edmund, 
earl of Arundel, 118; Joan, 
196, 273, 274 ; Richard, earl of 
Arundel, 115, 273, 275 ; Wil- 
liam, earl of Arundel, 279 

FitzAlan, arms, 116, 117; oak- 
leaf badge, 305 

FitzGerald, Emmeline, 217 

FitzHamon, Robert, arms of, 


FitzHugh, Henry lord, 229 

FitzHugh and Marmion, Wil- 
liam lord, 215 

Fitzjohn, John, 114 

FitzPain, Robert, 112 

FitzWalter arms, 45 

FitzWalter, Walter lord, 129 

FitzWarin seal, 196 

FitzWaryn, Sir William, 141 

Flanches, 42 

Foljambe arms, 119 

Foljambe, Roger, 1 18 

Fordham, John, bp. of Durham, 

Forster, Sir George, 306 

Forz, William of, earl of Albe- 
marle, 120 

Fotheringay church (North- 
ants), 239 
FranceandNormandy, Richard, 

governor of, see Richard 
France, arms of, 88, 115, 119, 
120, 224, 322, 323, 324; label 
of, 100 
France, John marshal of, see 
Talbot; John, regent of, see 
France, King of, 80, 85, 154 
France, Old, arms of, 89 
France, Philip King of, 322 
Franks, Sir A. W., 342 
Furnival, Thomas, 112 

Garter, collar of the, 281, 293, 

295 ; mantle of the, 280, 281 ; 

Order of the, 253, 260, 261 
Garter, Knights of the, banners 

of, 224, 225, 228; stall-plates 

of, 62, 70, 112, 130, 138, 151, 

229, 259 
Garter, the, 260-267 
Gaunt, see John of 
Gemell-bars, 45 
George duke of Clarence and 

lord of Richmond, 203, 204, 

207, 229 
George, saint, arms or cross of, 

49, 226, 234, 235, 248, 249, 

267, 346, 347 
Gilling castle (Yorks), 338, 340 
Glamorgan, lordship of, 200 
Glass, heraldic, 54 
Glastonbury, George inn at, 74, 

Gloucester, city of, 298 ; arms, 

335; effigy at, 293 
Gloucester, dukeof, j^^Thomas ; 

Gilbert earl of, see Clare ; 

Richard duke of, 59 
Gobony, 83 

Goldsmiths' Company,arms, 72 J^idex 

Goldwell, James, bp. of Nor- 
wich, 162, 191 

Gonvile arms, 45 

Gotch, Mr. J. A., 346 

Gower, John, 298 

Grapenell, H. de, 114; Parnel, 

Graunson, Katharine, 117; 
Margaret, 196 

Grevel, William, brass of, 90 

Grey, lady Jane, 285 

Grey of Codnor, Richard lord, 
151, 153, 182, 183 

Grey of Ruthin, Sir John, 229, 

Groos, Oliver, 301 

Guienne, duchy of, 155 

Guildford (Surrey) mayor's 
chain and medal, 315 

Guldeford, East (Sussex), 338, . 

Guldeford, Sir John, 338, 339 
Gunthorpe, dean, 74, 190, 192 
Gyronny, 41 

Hainault, arms of, 323 ; house 
of, 166 

Hales, Sir Stephen, 129 

Hallam, Robert, bp. of Salis- 
bury, 263, 265 

Halle, Peter, brass of, 93 

Halving of arms, 251 

Hamlake, see Roos 

Hampton Court, 331 ; heraldry 
at, 243-248 

Harcourt, Sir Robert, 305 

Harewell, bishop, effigy of, 192 

Harsick brass at Southacre, 158, 


Hastings arms, 117 

Hastings, John, earl of Pem- 
broke, 275; John lord, 117; 



Index ^^'" ^'^8^' ^rms, brass, and 
crest of, lOO, 157; Sir Ralph, 
174,328; William lord, 140, 

Hatfield, Thomas, bp. of Dur- 
ham, 163 

Hatfield Broadoak (Essex), 
effigy at, 104, 106 

Hearne, T., 242 

Helmsley, see Ross 

Hengrave Hall (Suffolk), 331 

Henry HI, King, 36, 99, 170, 
291, 292 

Henry IV, King, 92, 168, 172, 
200, 270, 290, 291, 297, 298, 
299, 300 

Henry V, King, 302, 309 

Henry VI, King, 47, 264, 272, 

309, 334 
Henry VII, King, 55, 154, 169, 

181, 210, 213, 266, 288, 294, 

Henry VIII, King, 72, 21 1, 245- 

248, 291, 308, 331-335 
Henry duke of Lancaster and 

earl of Derby, 91, 128, 167, 

200, 297, 298, 299, 300, 309 
Henry earl of Lancaster, 117 
Heraldic beasts as finials and 

vane holders, 238-239, 241- 

Heraldic colours, 37, 38 ; furs, 39 
Heraldry, definition of, 35 
Heralds' College, 233, 235, 334, 

336, 341 
Hereford, arms of, earldom of, 

214, 327 
Hereford, duke of, 92; earl of, 

see Stafford, Humphrey ; 

Henry duke of, see Henry; 

Humphrey earl of,j-^^ Bohun; 

John earl of, see Bohun 
Heme (Kent), brass at, 93 

Heslerton, Alice, 118; Thomas 

of, 118 
Heslerton arms, 118 
Hever (Kent), brass at, 267 
Hexham, regality of, seal of, 

Heytesbury, banner of, 216 
Holand, Joan, 206; Thomas, 

duke of Exeter, 282 ; Thomas, 

earl of Kent, 168, 206, 214, 

274; Thomas de, 129 
Holand, lordship of, 213 
Holand and Wake, Thomas 

lord, 211 
Holbeach (Lines), effigy at, 257 
Holbein, the painter, 295, 306, 

Hollar (Wenceslaus), 242 
Holyngbroke, William, arms of, 


Hope rebus, 192 

Howard, Thomas, duke of Nor- 
folk, 295, 329 

Humphrey duke of Gloucester 
and earl of Buckingham, 96, 
164, 281 

Hungerfordand Botreaux, Mar- 
garet lady of, 217, 222, 239 

Hungerford, Robert lord, 60, 
303 ; Sir Robert, 217; Walter 
lord, 144, 216, 221, 222, 229, 

Hungerford sickle, 182, 216 

Hussey arms, 116, 144; banner 
of, 216 

Huth, Mr. Edward, 307 

IcH DiENE, the motto, 166 
Illustrations, Chronological se- 
ries of, 354 
Impalement of arms, 252 
Indenting, 45 
Ireland, 249; harp of, 226, 347 


Isabel, sister of Richard duke of 
York, 1 88 

Isabel, Queen, 1 15, 324 

Islip, John, abbot of Westmin- 
ster, rebus of, 189, 191 

James I, King, 283 

Jane the fool, 248 

Jasper duke of Bedford, 164 

Jerusalem, Kingdom of, arms 

of, 51 
Joan, countess of Arundel, 279, 

280, 304 
Joan, dau. of King Edward I, 

Joan princess of Walfes, 174, 

Joan, Queen, 299, 303 ; effigy of, 

270, 271 
John duke of Bedfordand regent 

of France, 215, 229 
John of Eltham, the lord, 99, 

John of Gaunt duke of Lancas- 
ter, loi. III, 155, 166, 167, 
174, 199, 272, 324, 328 
John, saint, eagle of, 353 
John, Saint, John lord, 275 

Katharine, saint, hospital of, 
282, 283 

Kendal, John earl of, see Beau- 

Kensington, South, 119 

Kent, earl of, see Edmund ; 
Thomas earl of, see Holand 

Keys, Roger and Thomas, arms 
of, 47, 48 

Kidderminster (Worcs), brass 
at, 88 

King's Langley (Herts), 150 

King's Lynn waits' collars, 313, 

KIngston-on-Hull, mayor's and 
mayoress's chains, 315 

Kirby Hall, (Northants), 338 

Kirkham priory (Yorks), her- 
aldry on gatehouse, 38 

Kirkton, Robert, abbot of 
PeterJDorough, 178; rebus of, 
188, 191 

Knightley family, 343 

Knots as badgers, 184 

Label, the, 99 

Laci, Henry de, arms of, 44; 
Henry de, earl of Lincoln, 
124, 194 

Lacy arms, 119 

Ladies, arms of, 109 

Lancaster, Aveline countess of, 
120; Henry of, lord of Mon- 
mouth, 125, 126, 127, 194; 
Thomas earl of, see Thomas 

Lancaster, duke of, see John of 

Lancaster, earl of, see Edmund 

Lancaster, House of, 296 

Langeton, canon William, 185 

Langley, see Edmund of 

Langley, Thomas, bp. of Dur- 
ham, 163 

Latimer, William lord, 141, 

Lavenham church (Suffolk), 175 

Lavenham, William of, 273 

Law, Ernest, 244 

Legg, L. G. Wickham, 155 

Leicester, Thomas earl of, see 

Lennox, Margaret countess of, 
tomb of, 341, 343, 344_ 

Leon, arms of, 86, 1 1 1 ; lion of, 

Leybourne arms, 117, 120, 125, 


Index Leybourne, Juliana, 117; Roger, 
124, 211 ; Thomas, 1 17 

Lincoln, Henry earl of, see Laci ; 
Henry de Laci earl of, 44; 
John bp. of, see Alderby 

Lincoln minster, heraldry in, 


Lionel duke of Clarence, loi, 

Lisle efBgy at Thruxton, 308 

Little Device, the, 154 

Littlebury, Sir Humphrey, 
effigy of, 257 

London, 299; arms of, 337; 
banner of the lord mayor of, 
219, 226, 228; collar of SS of 
lord mayor, 308, 315; sheriff's 
chains, 3 15 ; waits'collars,3i3 

London, Burlington House, 233 ; 
Mansion House, 219, 226; 
National Portrait Gallery, 
211 ; Nelson Column in, 290; 
St. Paul's cathedral church, 
108, 228, 323 ; Templars' 
church in, 105 ; Trinity 
House, arms, 349, 350 

Longespee, Emmeline, 217; Ste- 
phen, 194, 217 

Longespee lions, 200; long- 
swords, 182, 217 

Long Melford (Suffolk), 46 

Lord, Our, arms of, 49 

Lovain arms, 97 

Lovel badge, 184 

Lovel, Francis viscount, 147; 
John lord, 304; Katharine, 

Lovel and Holand, William 
lord, 200 

Lowick church (Northants), 
187, 188 

Lozenges of arms, use of, no 

Lozengy, 44 


Lucy arms, 218; pike, 182 
Lullingstone (Kent), 191, 192 
Lupton, Robert, provost of 

Eton, rebus of, 191 
Lyhart, Walter, bp. of Norwich, 

Lyte, John, arms of, 334 

Macclesfield, Thomas, sene- 
schal of, 183 

Magnavilla, Geoffrey de, 105 

Man, Isle of, 183 

Manners effigy at Windsor, 306 

Mansion House, see London 

Mantlings, 139-147 

Mapperton manor-house (Dor- 
set), 238, 243 

March, earls of, 168; Edmund 
earl of, /^^Mortimer ; Richard 
earl of, see Richard ; Roger 
earl of, see Mortimer 

March, white lion of, 206, 208, 
209, 304, 326 

Margaret, saint, 313 

Markenfield, Sir Thomas, 309, 

Marmion, William lord, see 

Marni, Sir Robert de, 129, 130, 

Martel family, 189 

Marten church (Wilts), tile 
from, 334 

Mary I, Queen, 313, 336 

Mary, Queen, banner of, 228 

Masons' Company, 134 

Maud of Lancaster, 117, 119 

Mauley arms, 128 

Maulev, Peter de, IV, seal of, 
82; Peter de, VI, 128, 198 

Mayors' collars or chains, 313 

Michael, St., and St. George, 
Order of, 108, 228 

Mildenhall (Suffolk), brass for- 
merly at, 301 

Monmouth, Henry lord of, see 

Montagu griiffn, 205 

Montagu, John lord, see Nevill ; 
Simon lord of, 69, 86; Sybil, 
117; William, earl of Salis- 
bury, 117, 125, 127, 152, 195 

More, Sir Thomas, 306, 307, 

Mortimer arms, 174, 302, 326 

Mortimer, Edmund, earl of 
March and Ulster, 174, 197, 
201, 274, 302, 325; Philippa, 
274; Roger, earl of March 
and Ulster, 199 

Morton, John, abp. of Canter- 
bury, 164; Thomas, Canon 
of York, 328 

Moulton, Thomas de, 124 

Moun, John de, 195 

Mounci, Walter de, 128 

Mugginton (Derbys), brass at, 

Multon, Elizabeth de, 117 

Nanfant, Sir Richard, 233 
Nelson Column in London, 290 
Nevill, Alexander, abp. of York, 
162; Cecily, 208, 212; John 
lord, 277; John, lord Mon- 
tague, 203 ; John, lord of 
Raby, 199; Alargery, wife 
of John lord, 277; Ralph, 
earl of Westmorland, 278 ; 
Richard, earl of Salisbury 
and Warwick, 93, 137, 138, 
160, 200, 205, 229, 231; 
Robert, bp. of Durham, 
163, 164; Sir William, 199 
Nevill, effigies at Brancepeth, 
304; family, 103 

Newburgh, arms of, 97 Index 

Newcastle sheriff's chain, 315 
New Hall (Essex), 210, 291,332, 


Nicolas, Sir N. H., 273 

Norfolk, Thomas duke of, see 

Normandy, duchy of, 154, 155 

Northampton, earl of, see Staf- 
ford, Humphrey 

Northumberland, duke of, 311, 
312; earl of , 3 1 1 ; Henry earl 
of, see Percy 

Northwood arms, 120, 322 

Norwich arms, 72 ; mayor's 
chain, 315; sheriff's chain, 
315 ; waits' collars, 313, 314 

Norwich cathedral church, 192, 
263, 306 

Norwich Guildhall, doorway in, 

Norwich, Henry bishop of, see 
Despenser; James bp. of, see 
Goldwell; Walter bp. of, see 
Lyhart; William bp. of, 264 

OcKWELLS (Berks), heraldic 

glass at, 211 
Oldhalle, Sir William, 182 
Ordinaries, the, formation of, 

40, 41 
Orle, the, 42 
Ormond, Thomas earl of, see 

Ostrevant, Comte of, 166 
Ostrich-feathers badge, 166 
Oxenbridge, John, rebus of, 192 
Oxford, rebus on name, 189 
Oxford, All Souls' college, 61 ; 

Magdalen college, 112; 

Queen's college, seal of, 80 
Oxford, John earl of, see Vere; 

Richard earl of, and marquess 


Index of Dublin, 272; Robert earl 
of, see Vere 

Pakington, William, archdn. 

of Canterbury, 326 
Pale, the, 40 

Paly, 43 ; number of pales, 49 
Park-palings, collar of, 309, 310 
Party, 40; Party-bendwise, 40; 

Party-fessewise, 40; Party- 

saltirewise, 41 
Passion, instruments of the, 

Patrick, saint, 249; cross or 

saltire of, 225 
Paul, saint, sword of, 226 
Pavely, Sir Walter, 141 
Paynel, William, 113 
Peche, Sir John, 125; rebus of, 

191, 192 
Pecksall, Sir Ralph, 341, 343, 

Pelham, Sir John, badge of, 200 
Pembridge, effigy of a, 76 
Pembroke, earl of, 323 ; see also 

Pembroke, John earl of, see 

Pennons, 235-237 
Perche, earl of, see Stafford, 

Percy arms, 50; badge, 312; 

crescent badge, 184, 218, 

236; lion, etc., 218 
Percy, Henry, 'j'j, 239; Henry, 

earl of Northumberland and 

lord of Cockermouth, 218, 

238, 239; the lady Eleanor, 

106, 107, 108 
Peter, bishop of Exeter, 321 
Peter, saint, arms of, 323, 328, 

Peterborough (Northants), 


deanery gateway at, 178, 181, 

188, 191 
Phelip eagle, 48, 182 
Phelip, William, lord Bardolf, 

60, 182, 297 
Philip, King of France, 322 
Philippa, Queen, 166, 167, 323 
Pile, the, 42 ; Pily, 43 
Pol, Seynt, Mary de, 115, 116, 

Pole, de la, arms, 335 ; badges, 

Pole,de la, John,dukeof Suffolk, 

283 ; Michael, earl of Suffolk, 

175, 176, 275; William, earl 

of Suffolk, 141, 202 
Ponthieu, arms of, 71 
Poynyngs, arms of, 120, 322 

Quarter, the, 41, 42 
Quartering, 86 
Quarterly, 41 

Raby, John lord of, see Nevill 
Ramryge, abbot Thomas, 73 
Rebus, the, 189-192 
Redvers arms, 120 
Regent's Park, 282, 283 
Richard I, King, 124 
Richard H, King, 89, 168, 172, 

173, 174, 272, 309, 326 
Richard HI, King, 168, 304, 335 
Richard duke of Gloucester, 

seal of, 59 
Richard duke of York and earl 

of March, 167, 188, 206, 208, 

212, 218, 239 
Richard earl of Cornwall, arms 

of, 66 
Richmond, George, lord of, see 

George ; Margaret countess 

of, see Beaufort 

Richmond, label of, loi 
Ripon (Yorks), 309, 310 
Rivers, Richard lord, see VVyd- 

Robsart, Lewis, lord Bourchier, 

157, 181, 222, 223, 224, 239 
Rochester (Kent), 219 
Roll, the Great, 47, 48, 50, 62, 

Rolls of arms, 62 
Romans, Richard, King of the, 

Romnev, New (Kent), brass at, 

Roos, Thomas lord,of Hamlake, 

Rothwell (Northants), 338 
Roundels of arms, use of, in 
Royal Society, 233 

Salisbury cathedral church, 

60, 87, 303, 306 
Salisbury, earl of, see Nevill, 

Richard ; William earl of, see 

Salisbury, Robert, bp. of, see 

Salkeld (Cumb), effigies at, 306 
Salkeld family, effigies, 306, 

Saltire, the, 40, 41 
Savernake Forest, lord of, see 

Sturmy; tenure horn of, 116 
Scales family, 189 
Scales, Sir Roger, 198 
ScarcliiTe (Derbys), effigy at, 

27s, 276 
Scotland, 85, 248; arms of, 34, 

85, 350; lion of, 226, 346; 

tressure of, 85 ; unicorn sup- 
porter of, 206 
Scotland, King of, 321, 323 
Scrope crab or scrap, 182 

Scrope, John lord, 158, 175; J^dex 

Dan Richard, 329 
Scutcheon, the, 42 
Seals, heraldic, 52 
Selden's Titles of Honour, 273 
Settrington (Yorks), 299 
Sheffield, St. Peter's church, 

effigies in, 280, 281 
Shene Charterhouse, prior of, 

Shield, divisions of the, 40, 41 ; 

the, and its treatment, 65 
Shorne, Maister John, 242 
Shrewsbury, George earl of, 

280 ; John earl of, see Talboi: 
Simon the engraver, 347 
Skirlaw, Walter, bp. of Dur- 
ham, 163 
Sloley church (Norf), tomb in, 

Somers, Will, 248 
Somerset (county of), 59 
Somerset eagle, 206, 209 
Somerset, Edmund duke of, see 

Beaufort; John duke of, see 

Souche, Alan la, 194, 196 
Southacre (Norf), brass at, 159 
Southampton, arms of, 48, 86; 

steward of, 302 
Southwark cathedral church, 

164, 298 
Souvereyne, Soverayne, or Sover- 

ain, the word, 167, 200, 298, 

Sovereign, the, 85, 155 
Spain, arms of, 323 
Spilsby (Lines), brass at, 255 
SS, collar of, 296-304 
Stafford arms, 96 
Stafford, earl of, see Stafford, 

Stafford, Edward, bp. of Exeter, 

Index ^^Sl Edward, earl of Wilt- 
shire, 187, i88 ; Hugh, earl of, 
275 ; Hugh, lord Bourchier, 
144, 151, 152; Humphrey, 
duke of Buckingham, 93, 94, 
95, 96, 135; Joan, countess 
of Kent and lady of Wake, 
188; Katharine, 175, 176, 
275; Sir Henrv, 234, 338 

Stafford knot, 184, 185, 188, 

Staindrop (Durham), 276, 278, 

Standard, the Royal, 220, 

Standards, 234-235 

Stanford Dinglev (Berks), brass 
at, 83 

Stanley, Thomas lord, 158, 183, 

Stanton Harcourt (Oxon), 241, 

Stapleton, Sir Miles, 144 
Stapleton talbot, 339 
State's arms, 347, 348, 350 
Stoke d'Abernoun (Surrey), 235 
Stoke Poges (Bucks), brass at, 

Stothard's Monumental Effigies, 

269, 276 
Stowe, William, the elder, 310 
Sturmy, Henry, 116 
Suffolk, Alice duchess of, 283, 

284 ; duchess of, see Brandon ; 

Elizabeth duchess of, 283 ; 

John duke of, see Pole; 

Michael earl of, see Pole; 

William duke of, 283 ; Wil- 
liam earl of, see Pole 
Suns-and-roses, collar of, 304, 

Supporters, origin and uses of, 



Surrey, John earl of, see War- 

Swynburne family, 189 
Syon cope, 119, 120, 121 

Talbot, John, earl of Shrews- 
bury, 96, 97, 161, 214, 229, 

Talbot and Furnival, John lord, 
203, 205 

Tallow-Chandlers' Company, 


Tankerville, John earl of, 158 
Tattershall castle (Lincs)heral- 

dic chimney-piece in, 57 
Tew, Great (Oxon), brass at, 79 
Tewkesbury abbey church, 58, 

63, 73, 74 
Thistle, collar of the, 293 
Tildesley, Christopher, 299, 300 
Tillzolf arms, 326 
Tiptoft, John lord, 229 
Thomas duke of Clarence, 302 
Thomas duke of Exeter, 200 
Thomas (Beaufort) duke of 

Exeter, 230 
Thomas earl of Lancaster, 

Leicester and Ferrers, 125, 

126, 194 
Thomas of Brotherton, 100 
Thomas of Woodstock duke of 

Gloucester, 99, 155, 166, 167, 

172, 182, 213, 323, 326, 327 
Thomas, saint, of Canterbury, 

Thruxton (Hants), effigy at, 

Tong (Salop), 306 
Toni, Robert de, 171 
Torregiano, 266 
Trau, the Soudan de la, 144 
Tresham, Sir Thomas, 338 
Tresham trefoils, 338 

Tressure, the, 85 
Trevor family arms, 351 
Trinity, the Holy, 261, 306 
Trinity House, London, arms, 

349,' 350 
Trotton (Sussex), 261, 263, 296 
Trumpington family, 189 
Tunstall, Cuthbert, bp. of 

Durham, 163 
Twyford, Richard, 323 
Tylney, Elizabeth, arms of, 97 

Ufford arms, 335 

UflFord, Sir Ralph, 117, 119 

Ulster arms, 1 74, 3 26 ; badge of, 

218; label of, loi . 
Ulster, Richard earl of, 114; 

Roger earl of, see Mortimer; 

William earl of, see Burgh 
Union Jack, 219, 225, 248, 250 
Union of crowns of England 

and Scotland, 206 

Vair, 39, 258; Vairy, 39 

Valence arms, 119, 120 

Valence, Aymer of, earl of Pem- 
broke, 115, 116, 251, 273; 
William of, 61, 67, 120 

Veer, Hugh de, 181 

Verdon, Theobald lord, 114 

Vere arms, 88, 104, 117; boar, 
182; molet, 48, 182 

Vere effigy at Hatfield Broad- 
oak, 106 

Vere, John de, earl of Oxford, 
117, 118, 175; Robert de, 
earl of Oxford, 124 

Vernon effigy at Tong, 306 

Victoria, Queen, memorial to, 

V^ictoria and Albert Museum, 

53, 119, 121, 349, 351 
Victory, figure of, 34 

V'ipont, Isabel, 171 
\^oided scutcheon, the, 42 

Waits' collars, 313 

Wake knot, 184; lordship of, 

Waldby, Robert, abp. of York, 

Walden, de. Library, 235 

Walworth, Sir William, 226 

W^alysel, Thomas, brass of, 90 

War'de, Robert de la, 128 

Warehne, John de, earl of 
Surrey, 113 

W'arenne and Surrey, earl of, 
arms, 49 

Warenne estates, 115 

Warre, John la, 198 

Warwick, 61, 274, 276 

Warwick bear, 205 

Warwick, earl of, see Beau- 
champ ; Henry earl of, see 
Beauchamp ; Richard earl of, 
see Beauchamp ; Thomas earl 
of, see Beauchamp 

Waterford, John earl of, see 

Waterton, Robert, 298 

Wavy, 43 

Wax-Chandlers' Company, 134 

Welles, Helen, of York, 328 

W>lls chapter-house, 302 

Wells (Somerset), 74, 190, 191, 
192 ; oriel in deanery, 190, 192 

Wentworth arms and family, 


Westminster, 270, 294 

Westminster abbey, arms of, 
86 ; abbeychapter-house, tiles 
in, 36; vestry of, 322 

Westminster abbey church, her- 
aldry in, 37, 43, 44, 54, 55, 
61, 66, 67, 71, 80, 85, 86, 91, 



92, 97, 99, no, 120, 169, 170, 

172, 173, 180, 181, 184, 186, 

189, 222, 223, 259, 266, 332, 

341, 344, 345 
Westminster, palace of, 221,285 
Westmorland, Joan, countess 

of, see Beaufort; Ralph earl 

of, see Nevill 
Whatton (Notts), effigy at, 73 
Whatton, Sir Richard, 73 
Whitchurch (Oxon),brass at, 90 
Whitchurch (Salop), 281 
White hart badge, 168 
Wilfrid, saint, 311 
Willoughby d'Eresby, William 

lord, 143 
Wilton House (Wilts) diptych 

at, 309 
Wiltshire, Edward earl of, see 

Stafford ; Thomas earl of, see 

Winchester, Henry bp. of, see 

Beaufort; John marquess of, 

Windsor castle, chapel of St. 

George in, 62, 112, 113, 151, 

192, 224, 241, 242, 243, 306, 

331 : King's hall in, 238, 239; 

picture in, 295 
Windsor, Sir William, 201 
Wingfield church (Suffolk), 175, 

176, 283 
Woodstock, Thomas of, see 

Wotton-under-Edge (Glos), 

brass at, 309, 310 
Wreath or torse, 156-158 
Wren, Sir Christopher, 242 
Wulcy, Thomas, cardinal, 334, 

335. . ' - . 

Wydvile, Richard, lord Rivers, 

144, 147, 158, 229 
Wymington (Beds), brass at, 


Wyvil, Robert, bp. of Salis- 
bury, arms of, 87 

Yale or eale, the, 206, 209 
Yarmouth (Norf), mayor's 

chain, 315 
York, 328, 329; chains of lord 

mayor and lady mayoress, 

315; waits' collars, 313 
York, Alexander abp. of, see 

Nevill; Henry abp. of, see 

Bowet; Robert abp. of, see 

York, duke of, see Edmund of 

Langley; Richard duke of, 

see Richard 
York falcon, 206, 208, 218; 

fetterlock, 188; house of, 168, 

169; roses, 200 
York minster, heraldry in, 43, 

Yorkist collar of suns and roses, 

304-305, 312 

ZoucH badge, 184 
Zouch, William lord, 203